What is Forging and Its types ,Advantages

Introduction To Forging: 

Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: cold forging (a type of cold working), warm forging, or hot forging (a type of hot working). For the latter two, the metal is heated, usually in a forge.
forging operation
forging operation

What is forging? (Define forging)

  1. Forging is a plastic flow of metal by the application of compressive forces in which size and shape is changed permanently without failure.
  2. Forging is a deformation process in which work is compressed between two dies using either impact or gradual pressure to form the part 

Materials suitable For Forging :

Any material (Metal or Alloy) which can be brought to plastic stage through heating can be forged.

  1. Aluminium and  its alloys
  2. Copper and its alloys
  3. Magnesium and its alloys
  4. Tungsten and its alloys
  5. All types carbon steels
  6. Stainless steels

Types Of Forging machine:

types of forging machines
types of forging machines

What are the properties of the forgeable materials?

1. Strength
2. Malleability
3. Resistance to fatigue
4. Durability
5. Shock or bending resistance
6. Machinability


  • Ability of material to get forged by the external pressure of hammer or press is known as forgeability. Forgeability increases with temperature up to a point at which a second phase,e.g. from ferrite to austenite in steel, appears or if grain growth becomes excessive.
  • Metals which have low ductility have reduced forgeability at higher strain rates, whereas highly ductile metals are not so strongly affected by increasing strain rates.

Advantages of Forging:

1. Uniformity of qualities for parts subject to high stresses & loads.
2. Weight saving
3. Close tolerance
4 Less machining
5 Smooth surface
6. Speed of production


1. High tool cost
2. High tool maintenance
3. No cored holes
4. Limitations in size and shape.

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