Introduction to Conventional and Non-conventional Machining
Manufacturing processes can be broadly divided into two groups and they are primary manufacturing processes and secondary manufacturing processes. The former ones provide basic shape and size to the material as per the designer’s requirement. Casting, forming, powder metallurgy are such processes to name a few. Secondary manufacturing processes provide the final shape and size with tighter control on the dimension, surface characteristics, etc. Material removal processes are mainly secondary manufacturing processes.
Material removal processes once again can be divided into mainly two groups and they are “Conventional Machining Processes” and “Non-Traditional Manufacturing Processes”.
Examples of conventional machining processes are turning, boring, milling, shaping, broaching, slotting, grinding etc. Similarly, Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM), Ultrasonic Machining (USM), Water Jet and Abrasive Water Jet Machining (WJM and AWJM), Electro-discharge Machining (EDM) are some of the Non-Traditional Machining (NTM) Processes.
non-conventional machining process which is defined as the process in which materials are removed from the workpiece in most accurate and effective manner. This is also termed as a new machining process.
There are different setup for this process. They are:
Difference between Conventional and non-conventional machining processes are :
- The conventional machining process involved tool wearing as there is physical contact between the tool and the work piece. In the non-conventional process, this is not the case.
- Non-conventional tools are more accurate and precise than the conventional tool.
- No noise pollution is created as a result of non-conventional methods as these tools are much quieter.
- Tool life is long for non-conventional processing.
- Non-conventional tools are very expensive than conventional tools.
- Non-conventional tools have complex setup and hence requires a skillful operation by expert workers, whereas conventional tools do not require any special expert for its operation and are quite simple in the set-up.
- Spare parts of conventional machines are easily available but not for non-conventional machines.
- Extremely hard material can be cut easily with the help of nonconventional machining but conventional machining, raw material should be less hard than a cutting tool.
- In conventional machining: Material removal takes place due to the application of cutting forces – the energy domain can be classified as mechanical. In Non-Conventional Machining: Mostly NTM processes do not necessarily use mechanical energy to provide material removal. They use different energy domains to provide machining. For example, in USM, AJM, WJM mechanical energy is used to machine material, whereas in ECM electrochemical dissolution constitutes material removal.
- Non Conventional machines can handle very complex jobs as compare to Conventional machining.
- In Conventional machining because of scrap and chip formation more wastage of material. In the case of nonconventional machining, no chip formation hence less scrap.
Difference Between Conventional ( Traditional ) and Non-Conventional ( Non- traditional ) Machining Processes
|Traditional / Conventional Machining Processes||Non-Traditional / Non-Conventional Machining Processes|
|1. Generally macroscopic chip formation by shear deformation.||1. Material removal may occur with chip formation or even no chip formation may take place.|
|2. There may be a physical tool present.||2. There may not be a physical tool present.|
|3. The cutting tool is harder than the workpiece.||3. Cutting tool not harder than work piece|
|4. Material removal takes place due to the application of cutting forces – energy domain can be classified as mechanical||4. Mostly NTM processes do not necessarily use mechanical energy to provide material removal. They use different energy domains to provide|
machining. For example, in USM, AJM, WJM mechanical energy is used to machine material, whereas in ECM electrochemical dissolution constitutes material removal.
|5. Conventional machining involves the direct contact of tool and workpiece.||5. Whereas unconventional machining does not require direct contact of tool and workpiece.|
|6. Lower accuracy and surface finish.||6. Higher accuracy and surface finish.|
|7. Suitable for every type of material economically||7. Not Suitable for every type of material economically|
|8. Tool life is less due to high surface contact and wear.||8. Tool life is more|
|9. Higher waste of material due to high wear.||9. Lower waste of material due to low or no wear.|
|10. Noisy operations mostly cause sound pollutions.||10. Quieter operation mostly no sound pollutions are produced.|
|11. Lower capital cost||11. Higher capital cost|
|12. Easy set-up of equipment.||12. Complex set-up equipment.|
|13. The skilled or un-skilled operator may be required||13. Skilled operator required.|
|14. Generally, they are manual to operate.||14. Generally, they are a fully automated processes.|
|15. They cannot be used to produce prototype parts very efficiently and economically.||15. Can be used to produce prototype parts very efficiently and economically.|
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