What is Machining | Definition , Purpose of machining

What is Machining | Definition , Purpose of machining


In an industry, metal components are made into different shapes and dimensions by using various metal working processes.
Metal working processes are classified into two major groups. They are:

  • Non-cutting shaping or chips less or metal forming process – forging, rolling, pressing, etc.
  • Cutting shaping or metal cutting or chip forming process – turning, drilling, milling, etc.

Read more : Non traditional machining Projects For Mechanical Students


Definition of machining
Machining is an essential process of finishing by which work pieces are produced to the desired dimensions and surface finish by gradually removing the excess material from the preformed blank in the form of chips with the help of cutting tool(s) moved past the work surface(s).

Principle of machining
Fig. typically illustrates the basic principle of machining. A metal rod of irregular shape, size and surface is converted into a finished product of desired dimension and surface finish by machining by proper relative motions of the tool-work pair.

principle of Machining
principle of Machining

Purpose of machining

Most of the engineering components such as gears, bearings, clutches, tools, screws and nuts etc. need dimensional and form accuracy and good surface finish for serving their purposes. Preforming like casting, forging etc. generally cannot provide the desired accuracy and finish. For that such preformed parts, called blanks, need semi-finishing and finishing and it is done by machining and grinding. Grinding is also basically a machining process.

Machining to high accuracy and finish essentially enables a product:

  • Fulfill its functional requirements.
  • Improve its performance.
  • Prolong its service.

Requirements of machining

The essential basic requirements for machining a work are schematically illustrated in Fig.

The blank and the cutting tool are properly mounted (in fixtures) and moved in a powerful device called machine tool enabling gradual removal of layer of material from the work surface resulting in its desired dimensions and surface finish. Additionally some environment called cutting fluid is generally used to ease machining by cooling and lubrication.

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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