What is Carpentry | Tools Used in Carpentry Shop
A carpenter (builder) is a skilled craftsperson who performs carpentry. Carpenters work with wood to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects. The work may involve manual labor and work outdoors.
Types of wood:
The wood is generally classified into three types; Soft, Hard and Plywood
1. Soft wood: It has straight fibers and it is weak but easy to work. Example: Deodar, Kail, Chir
2. Hard wood: It is closed structure, heavy in weight, dark in colour, more durable. It is difficult to work. Example: Teak, Sal, Mango, Maple, Oak.
3. Plywood: It has three layers i.e., Top face plys layer, Core layer and Bottom face plys layer. The top and bottom layers are called face plys layers. These two layers are bonded to the center core, which is
thick and not of good quality.
Wood Seasoning is the process of removal of moisture from Timber. This can also be termed as the drying process of timber. Fresh timber has a very high quantity of moisture and hence is not useful for use in construction or for manufacture of furniture. In the seasoning process the moisture of the wood is brought down in the range of 8 – 15% based on the end application.
Following are the advantages of Seasoning:
1. No risk of fungal decay
2. Reduces weight
3. Improvement in Strength Properties
4. Increase in Nail and screw holding capacity
5. Improves Gluing capacity
6. Helps in Preservative Treatment
7. Wood exhibits better electrical and thermal Insulation properties
Carpentry Tools :
1. A Ball Peen Hammer:
A ball-peen hammer is a type of peening hammer used in woodworking. It is distinguished from a point-peen hammer or chisel-peen hammer by having a hemispherical head. Ball-peen hammers are divided into two classes: hard-faced and soft-faced. The head of a hard faced hammer is made of heat treated forged high-carbon steel or alloy steel; it is harder than the face of a claw hammer. The soft faced hammers are made from brass, lead, tightly wound rawhide, or plastic. These hammers usually have replaceable heads or faces, because they will deform, wear out, or break over time. They are used when there is the danger of damaging a striking surface.
A mallet is a kind of hammer, made of wood, with a relatively large head. Wooden mallet, usually used in carpentry to knock wooden pieces together or to drive dowels or chisels. A wooden mallet will not deform the striking end of a metal tool, as most metal hammers would, but it also reduces the force available to drive the cutting edge of a chisel.
They are particularly useful for cutting purpose with the help of mallet. It also has a strengthening piece called a ferrule which prevents the handle from splitting at the bottom when it is hit repeatedly by a mallet.
Types of Chisels
Chisels have a wide variety of uses. Many types of chisels have been devised, each specially suited to its intended use.
a) Mortise Chisel:
Thick, rigid blade with straight cutting edge and square sides to make mortises and similar joints.
b) Dovetail Chisel:
Made specifically for cutting dovetail joints. The different being the thickness of the body of the chisel, as well as the angle of the edges, permitting easier access to the joint.
c) Bevel Chisel:
Edged chisels are slightly undercut making them easy to push into corners. They are normally used for finishing dovetail joints.
d) Firmer Chisels:
They have a blade with a rectangular cross-section. This means that they are stronger and can be used for tougher/heavier work.
4. Try square:
It is used for testing the flatness of the surfaces or whether the adjacent surfaces are at right angles to each other or not.
A vice is a mechanical screw apparatus used for holding or clamping a work piece to allow work to be performed on it with tools such as saws, planes, drills, mills, screwdrivers, sandpaper, etc.
6. C- Clamp:
A C-clamp is a type of clamp device typically used to hold a wood or metal work piece, and are often used in, but are not limited to, carpentry and welding. These clamps are called “C” clamps because of their C shaped frame.
A saw is used to cut the wood into pieces. It has different types as follows:
a) Mitre saw :
It is often referred to a large backsaw (20-30 inches or 60-90 cm) used either in a wooden mitre box or in a metal frame which allowed cutting mitres of any specified angle.
b) Tenon saw:
It has a parallel blade of width 60 mm to 100 mm, length 250 mm to 400 mm and 12 to 20 points or teeth per 25 mm length. The teeth are shaped like a cross cut saw, in form of an equilateral triangle.
c) Rip Saw:
It is used for cutting along the grains of wood. Its blade is about 700 mm long, and has 3 to 5 points or teeth per 25 mm length. The teeth of the rip saw have a series of chisel edge.
8. Steel Rule:
Steel rules, also called rulers, are essential for linear measurements in any shop. They can also be used as guides for laying out lines, and if rigid enough, for cutting. The thinner, more flexible rules can also be used to measure rounded or cambered work.
9. Marking Gauge:
A marking gauge is used in woodworking and metalworking to mark out lines for cutting or other operations. In metalworking it can be known as a scratch gauge. The purpose of the gauge is to scribe a line parallel to a reference edge or surface. It is used in joinery and sheet metal operations.
10. Jack Plane:
It is used to make the surface of wood smooth to get good surface finish. A large range of planes are available and they are used for different purposes. The body of a plane is made from high grade cast iron with the cutters being tungsten made from vanadium steel.
Mainly there are two types: Wooden Jack Plane and Metal Jack Plane. Note that Metal Jack plane is used to get better surface finish.
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