Design and Development of Pneumatically Operated Automatic Seed Sowing Machine

Design and Development of Pneumatically Operated Automatic Seed Sowing Machine


In the Indian nurseries, often used conventional seeding operation takes more time and more labour. The seed feed rate is more but the time required for the total operation is more and the total cost is increased due to labour, hiring of equipment. The conventional seed sowing machine are less efficient, time consuming. Today’s era is marching towards the rapid growth of all sectors including the agricultural sector. To meet the future demands, we have to implement the new techniques will increase the overall production. As day by day the labour availability becomes the great concern for the farmers and labour cost is more, this machine reduces the efforts and total cost of sowing the seeds and fertilizer placement. Theoretical studies regarding pneumatic equipment for sowing small seeds in cups, highlighting the advantages of this type of equipment with superior parameters obtained from the considered crops. Equipment can be used in narrower spaces, being easily to handle and use, of driving the vacuum generator can be done electrically. By using this equipment, the productivity will increase, the space of establishing the seedlings will reduce, and the seeds norm will diminish. The germinating, rising and development space of plants is assured, equipment can be automated and built by minimum costs.


After the advent of green revolution, more emphasis is laid on the quality of the agricultural product along with the quantity of production to meet the ever-growing food and nutritional requirements. Both these demands can be met when the environment for the plant growth is suitably controlled. The need to protect the crops against un-favourable environmental conditions led to the development of protected agriculture. Greenhouse is the most practical method of achieving the objectives of protected agriculture, where natural environment is modified by using sound engineering principles to achieve optimum plant growth and yield. Our country is self dependent on food grain production but to fulfil the nutritional security, the gap between increasing demand of horticultural produce has to be filled. This gap cannot be filled by the traditional horticulture which required large area under horticulture to increase the production for the ever growing population. Green house technology has potential to produce more produce per unit area with increased input use efficiency.

Though India have 2nd largest man-power in the world, it is very difficult to find the workers for planting seeds in nursery as well as in Farm. Also there is loss of seed while sowing it in seed planting tray; it leads to loss of self property and ultimately loss for nursery as well as for farmers. The existing sowing machine is too costly. It is not abundantly available in India. It has a complex design.

In India traditional farming is prevalent but now new farming technology like poly house farming provides better income in a short period of time with fewer labours. Polyhouse farming is an alternative new technique in agriculture gaining foothold in rural India. It reduces dependency on rainfall & makes the optimum use of land and water, seed resources. Polyhouse farming can help the farmer generate income around the year growing multiple crops with an efficient machine called “SEED SOWING MACHINE”

Main Objective of new technology:

1. Arrangement for depth control.
2. Uniformity in the distribution of seed placement.
3. Proper utilization of SEEDS.
4. Time Reduction in Planting.
5. Per HECTOR Production increase.
6. Placement of seeds at proper depth.
7. Reduction in Man-Power.

Working of Pneumatic Circuit:

Compressed air from Air Compressor is supplied to the vacuum pump through solenoid valve. Solenoid valve is operated (ON-OFF) by Arduino Software. Nozzle is connected to the vacuum pump. Compressed air is supplied to the vacuum pump and vacuum is generated at the tip of nozzle. Due to vacuum generation, Seed get sucked at the tip of the nozzle as nozzle inlet diameter is smaller than diameter of the seed. As the solenoid valve is ON vacuum generation keeps on. After the rotation of stepper motor vacuum pump also gets rotate and after certain rotation of vacuum pump with the help of electronic circuit solenoid valve gets OFF. So the seed will fall into the cup of seedling tray. This cycle will continue further.

Automatic Seed Sowing Machine
Automatic Seed Sowing Machine


The design of structure and hardware was an organic process throughout the planning and fabrication stages. The initial designs were primarily based on the basic specifications that had been decided on early in the year. The hardware and structural designs evolved to better satisfy these specifications.
The main steps during manufacturing were:
1. Frame Manufacturing
2. Pulley Manufacturing
3. Pulley Mounting
4. Motor Mounting
5. Vacuum Pump attachment
6. Conveyor Belt Mounting
7. Electronic Circuit Mounting.

Authors :

Atul B. Ekad1, Sonal N. Salunke2, Sunaina B. Gawde3, Archana K. Said4, Prof. G. L. Suryawanshi5
UG Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, NBN Sinhgad School of Engineering, Pune, Maharashtra, India1

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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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