Automatic Differential Unit Locking System Report Download

Automatic Differential Unit Locking System Report Download


The proposed mechanism is to lock the differential. By locking the differential the differential is disengaged from the axle. Thus the power is directly transmitted to the axle and hence to the wheels. This will considerably reduce the power loss in some occasions when unwanted loss is happening due to the transmission if power from the shaft to the differential and then to the axle and hence to the wheels. So in mechanism the unwanted power loss in the due course of transmission through the differential is reduced.

There are some drawbacks in the existing mechanism and we overcome it in the proposed project. The first is while climbing in steep hills the differential is not really needed as the speed of the vehicle is low. And also there are some transmission loses in the differential. So at this time the unit is locked and the loss is overcome. Then when a heavy truck is struck in a pit or mud it is very difficult to recover the truck as the differential unit cuts the power which is to be transmitted to the wheel struck. So in this project the unit is disengaged and power is directly given to the axle by pneumatic means and so the recovery is made easier. This is even made use in the vehicle to be driven in the dense forests and even in dessert.



A differential is a device which is used in vehicles over a few decades and when a vehicle is negotiating a turn, the outside wheel travels a greater distance and turns faster than the inside wheel. The differential is the device transmitting the power to each wheel, allows one wheel to turn faster than the other. It splits the engine torque two ways, allowing each output to spin at a different speed. The differential is found on all modern cars and trucks, and also in many all-wheel-drive (full-time four-wheel-drive) vehicles.

These all-wheel-drive vehicles need a differential between each set of drive wheels, and they need one between the front and the back wheels as well, because the front wheels travel a different distance through a turn than the rear wheels. Part-time four-wheel-drive systems don’t have a differential between the front and rear wheels; instead, they are locked together so that the front and rear wheels have to turn at the same average speed. This is why these vehicles are hard to turn on concrete when the four-wheel-drive system is engaged.


When a vehicle is negotiating a corner, the outside wheel has to travel a grater distance than the inside wheel. Therefore, the outside wheel must turn faster than the inside wheel. The differential is the device within the axle assembly which, in addition to transmitting the power to each axle shaft/wheel, allows one wheel to turn at a different speed than the other. A conventional open differential sends equal amounts of torque to both axle shafts (top).
If one wheel spins because of lost traction, it is sustaining zero engine torque, so zero engine torque is also going to the wheel with traction. Adding a locking differential—in this case a No Spin locker (bottom)—mechanically links the two shafts so that power will be delivered to both axles in all circumstances.


  • Conventional or Open
  • Limited Slip
  • Automatic Locking
  • Manual Locking


The main purpose of this project is to lock the differential or to disengage the differential at the time when it is needed to be. So to lock the differential we need to connect the two shafts on the either side so that the differential has no effect on the axle. Now to connect the two shafts we use two circular plates on the either sides of the differential. Both are in such a way that they get mated as soon as possible even in their rotation. So when the pneumatic valve is actuated then one of the plates is pushed to the other so that the plates get mated and hence the shafts are connected. So thus the differential is disengaged. To engage the differential again a spring is used to push the plates apart. Thus this is the working principle of this project.

block diagram of differential working unit
block diagram of differential working unit


Assembly layout of the automatic differential lock unit system
Assembly layout of the automatic differential lock unit system


  • All Four wheeler application


  • Less Manual force is required to locking the differential unit
  • This pneumatic system is also working with the help of air tank
  • Time consumption is less
  • More efficient system and simple in construction


  • High Initial cost.


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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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