Table of Contents
Fabrication Of Automatic Guided Vehicle report PDF Download
The Automatic Guided Vehicle refers a type of system that can be used in production as well as in other industries etc. This system includes a battery operated remote sensing locomotive (carrier) on which a small lift is provided, specific path over which it moves, sensors for sensing the the obstructions on the path of the carrier. Also sensors for sensing exact positions from where load wants to carry and to where.
The remote sensing carrier moves using the electric power from the battery. It moves with a low and constant speed on the prescribed path. The path has a specific color. The bottom of the carrier have sensor which is always coupled with the path. From the remote station we send only information for moving the carrier, not for steering it. The steering is done by the path. The front side of carrier vehicle contains sensors for sensing the obstructions on the path.
As it reaches the collecting station, its top floor lift to a small distance and lift the stand which contains the parts wants to assemble, supply. And the carrier moves through the path and reaches the supply station. The sensor provided on the carrier detected the station and unload the stand contains assembly parts at that station. And move to collecting stations again. Continues working cycles for making this project a reality.
AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse Automated guided vehicles increase efficiency and reduce costs by helping to automate a manufacturing facility or warehouse. The AGV can tow objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach. The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of conveyor and then pushed off by reversing them. Some AGVs use forklifts to lift objects for storage. AGVs are employed in nearly every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper, and general manufacturing. Transporting materials such as food, linen or medicine in hospitals is also done.
An AGV can also be called a laser guided vehicle (LGV) or self-guided vehicle (SGV). Lower cost versions of AGVs are often called Automated Guided Carts (AGCs) and are usually guided by specific lines magnetic tape. AGCs are available in a variety of models and can be used to move products on an assembly line, transport goods throughout a plant or warehouse, and deliver loads to and from stretch wrappers and roller conveyors.AGV applications are seemingly endless as capacities can range from just a few kgs to hundreds of tons. The Aim of the project is to design and fabricate such a AGV.
PROJECT AND ITS SCOPE
The objective and scope of this project is to create an AGV model that can follow a trail of line on a flat surface horizontally. This AGV model is using microcontroller to control all navigation and lifting functions during its operation. In other words, the microcontroller acts just like the brain for the model that controls all operation of the system.
The model is a three-wheeled mobile robot that has the ability to follow line on floor. There are three wheels including two driving wheels controlled by two motors and a free wheel in front that is able to rotate 360°. With three wheels, both driving wheels are always in contact with the surface, because of the robot’s steering relies on both its driven wheels being in contact with the surface at all times.
This project consists of four main stages, which are theoretical design, mechanical fabrication, electronic hardware design and as well as algorithm design in assembly language. The matter to be considered is how the robot can follow the trail of line continuously. It is also important to choose the most suitable microcontroller, actuators, and sensors to achieve the project objectives.
In design problems many decision variables arise. The impact of decisions on mutual interactions and performance might be difficult to predict. It might be hard to decide on one thing without considering other decision variables. At least the following tactical and operational issues have to be addressed in designing an AGV system
• Flow path layout
• Traffic management: prediction and avoidance of collisions and deadlocks
• Number and location of pick-up and delivery points
• Vehicle requirements
• Vehicle routing
• Vehicle scheduling
• Battery management
A flow path layout compromises the fixed guided paths on which vehicles can travel to the various pick-up and delivery points of loads. Traffic management is required to avoid collisions and deadlock situations in which two or more vehicles are blocked completely. To ensure that loads are transported in time, sufficient vehicles should be available and the right vehicle should be dispatched to the right load.
To determine an optimal AGV’s system, capable of meeting all requirements, many factors have to be taken into account. Several of these factors are:
• Number of units to be transported
• Points in time at which units can be or need to be transported
• Capacity of the vehicle
• Speed of the vehicle
• Costs of the system
• Layout of the system and guide path
• Traffic congestion
• Vehicle dispatching strategies
• Number and location of pick-up and delivery points
If AGVs use batteries, frequent battery changing might be required. McHaney (1995) presents an overview of AGV battery technology. The time required for replacing or charging batteries can impact the number of vehicles required. Simulation results from McHaney (1995) indicate a significant increase in the number of AGVs required while incorporating battery management issues in the simulation study compared to neglecting these issues in the studies. Furthermore, the time required for charging batteries impacts throughput, congestion and costs.
The AGV is a productivity increasing feature in a factory. During the manufacturing of this AGV we had found many of intelligence that can be given to it. We provide the basic functions like line following and collision avoiding. And the main function, transportation of goods from station to station. The followings are the main features of the prototype which we fabricated.
1. Speed of delivery
2. Adjustment of vehicle speed
3. Flexibility of path
4. Adaptive to changes in factory layouts
5. Avoid collision with other objects
6. Reduction in labour cost
7. Reduction in running cost compared to conveyer systems
8. Ability to add sensors to detect the payload conditions
9. Ability to adjust the lifting time
10. Continues cycle of working
11. Conditions for line following can be change easily.
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