Study and Sectional View of Differential Gear- Mechanical Projects

Study and Sectional View of Differential Gear- Mechanical Projects


A differential is a device usually, but not necessarily, employing gears, which is connected to the outside world by three shafts, chains or similar, through which it transmits torque and rotation. Except in some special purpose differentials, there are no other limitations on the rotational speeds of the shafts, apart from the usual mechanical/engineering limits. Any of the shafts can be used to input rotation and the other to output it. A simple differential in which gears are equal.

In automobile and other wheeled vehicles, a differential is usual way to allow the driving road wheels to rotate at different speeds. This is necessary when the vehicle turns, making the wheel that is travelling around the outside of the turning curve roll farther and faster than the other. The engine is connected to the shafts rotating at angular velocity. The driving wheels are connected to the other two shafts, and p and q are equal. If the engine is running at a constant speed, the rotational speed of each driving wheel can vary, but the sum or average of two wheels speeds cannot change. An increase in the speed of one wheel must be balanced by an equal decrease in the speed of the other. If one wheel is rotating backward, which is possible in every tight turns, its speed should be counted as negative.

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main parts of differential gearbox
main parts of differential gearbox


In a differential transmission including a differential transmission casing with planetary bevel gears supported therein so as to be rotatable about an axis normal to a centre axis of the transmission casing, and two center gears arranged at opposite sides of and in meshing engagement with planetary bevel gears the differential transmission casing has at least at one end there of a cylindrical casing extension having an opening which is concentric with the center axis and into which an insert is fitted which has an outer end projecting from the casing extensions and forming an annular bearing section for rotatable supporting the differential transmission casing in an outer transmission housing.

The drive axle assembly of a RWD vehicle is mounted at the rear of the car most of these assemblies use a single housing to mount the differential gears and axles. The entire housing is part of the suspension and helps to locate the rear wheels.
Another type of rear drive ale is used with IRS. With IRS the differential is bolted to the chassis and does not move with the suspension. The axles are connected to the differential and drive wheel CV or U-joints, Because the axles move with the suspension and the differential is bolted to the chassis, a common housing for these parts is impossible.
On most RWD cars, the final drive is located in the rear axle housing. On most FWD cars, the final drive is located within the transaxle. Some current FWD cars mount the engine and transaxle longitudinally. Theses configurations use a differential that is similar to the other FWD models. Some FWD cars have a longitudinally mounted engine fitted to a special transmission with a separate differential mounted to it.
A differential is needed between any two drive wheels, whether in a RWD, FWD or 4WD vehicle. The two drive wheels must turn at different speeds when the vehicle is in a turn.

Functions and Components

The differential allows for different speeds at the drive wheels when a vehicle goes around c corner or any time there is a change of direction. When a car turns a corner, the outside wheels must travel farther and faster than the inside wheels. If the compensation is not made for this difference in speed and travel, the wheels would skid and slide, causing poor handling and excessive tire wear. Compensation for the variations in wheel speeds is made by the differential assembly. While allowing for their different speeds, the differential also must continue to transmit torque.
The differential of a RWD vehicle is normally housed with the drive axles in a large casting called the rear axle assembly. Power from the engine enters into the center of the rear axle assembly and is transmitted to the drive axles. The drive axles are supported by bearings and are attached to the wheels of the car. The power entering the rear axle assembly has its direction changed by the differential. This change of direction is accomplished through the hypoid gears used in the differential.


A vehicle’s wheels rotate at different speeds, mainly when turning corners. The differential is designed to drive a pair of wheels while allowing them to rotate at different speeds. In vehicles without a differential, such as karts, both driving wheels are forced to rotate at the same speed, usually on a common axle driven by a simple chain-drive mechanism. When cornering, the inner wheel needs to travel a shorter distance than the outer wheel, so with no differential, the result is the inner wheel spinning and/or the outer wheel dragging, and this results in difficult and unpredictable handling, damage to tires and roads, and strain on or possible failure of the entire drive train. Finally we concluded that the cross sectional view of differential gear and the working principle of differential gear. According to the principle of geometry of gear.


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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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