What is Single Acting Cylinder | Diagram , Symbol, types of single acting Cylinder
A single-acting cylinder is simplest in design and is shown schematically in Fig.1.1. It consists of a piston inside a cylindrical housing called barrel. On one end of the piston there is a rod, which can reciprocate. At the opposite end, there is a port for the entrance and exit of oil. Single-acting cylinders produce force in one direction by hydraulic pressure acting on the piston. (Single-acting cylinders can exert a force in the extending direction only.) The return of the piston is not done hydraulically. In single-acting cylinders, retraction is done either by gravity or by a spring.
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Types of Single Acting Cylinder :
According to the type of return, single-acting cylinders are classified as follows:
- Gravity-return single-acting cylinder.
- Spring-return single-acting cylinder.
Gravity-Return Single-Acting Cylinder
Figure1.2 shows gravity-return-type single-acting cylinders. In the push type [Fig. 1.2(a)], the cylinder extends to lift a weight against the force of gravity by applying oil pressure at the blank end. The oil is passed through the blank-end port or pressure port. The rod-end port or vent port is open to atmosphere so that air can flow freely in and out of the rod end of the cylinder. To retract the cylinder, the pressure is
simply removed from the piston by connecting the pressure port to the tank. This allows the weight of the load to push the fluid out of the cylinder back to the tank. In pull-type gravity-return-type single-acting cylinder, the cylinder [Fig. 1.2(b)] lifts the weight by retracting. The blank-end port is the pressure port and blind-end port is now the vent port. This cylinder automatically extends whenever the pressure port is connected to the tank.
Spring-Return Single-Acting Cylinder
A spring-return single-acting cylinder is shown in Fig.1.3.In push type [Fig. 1.3(a)], the pressure is sent through the pressure port situated at the blank end of the cylinder. When the pressure is released, the spring automatically returns the cylinder to the fully retracted position. The vent port is open to atmosphere so that air can flow freely in and out of the rod end of the cylinder.
Figure 1.3(b) shows a spring-return single-acting cylinder. In this design, the cylinder retracts when the pressure port is connected to the pump flow and extends whenever the pressure port is connected to the tank. Here the pressure port is situated at the rod end of the cylinder.
Symbol Of Single Acting Cylinder :
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