What is Fabrication Technology | Classification of Fabrication Processes

What is Fabrication Technology | Classification of Fabrication Processes


It is defined as a different field of engineering involves joining together quite no. of smaller component in structural construction machine, building etc. this component can be joined by temporary fastening like bolts, screws, but joining them permanently involves the use of forging, riveting and welding techniques.


Mainly all critical structures are produce by fabrication technology like, boiler, pressure vessel, ships, offshore, structure, bridges, storage tanks, rocket parts, sphere etc are produce speedily, easily and economically.

1. Ship building
2. Thermal and nuclear power plant
3. Oil pipe line construction
4. Process plant
5. Automobile industry
6. Aerospace industry
7. Bridges construction


Fabrication workManufacturing process
Its process of joining two parts of metal and
non metal.
It is process for making desire shape and size of
products without removal of metal
Aim of fab. Is to prepare and accurate quantity
Aim is the process to produce quality shape and size
of the parts
Wastage of metal is avoided by this workWastage is more compare to the fab.
Large size product can be produceSmall parts can be produce
This includes processes like welding, brazing,
soldering etc.
This includes processes like casting, forming,
machining etc.


classification of fabrication processes
classification of fabrication processes


(1) Welding:

Process by which two similar or dissimilar metals can be joined by heating them to a suitable temperature with or without application of pressure and with or without filler metal.

It is desired that weld shall be as nearly as possible identical in composition and properties with the parent metal to attain highest corrosion resistance….. .it is of two type

1. Fusion or non pressure welding.
2. Pressure welding or plastic welding.


A) Merits

  • cost of equipment is less and cheap process.
  • permanent joint is achieved.
  • Almost all similar and dissimilar metals can be joined.
  • Welding provides flexibility in joint design.
  • Speedy production with less cost.
  • Desired length can be achieved and larger parts can be produced.

B) Demerits:

  • Sometimes preheating and edge preparation required..
  • Residual stresses are developed.
  • Skill welder is required, safety required.

Read more : What are the major welding applicationOpens in a new tab.

(2) Soldering:

Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal (solder) into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece. Soldering differs from welding in that soldering does not involve melting the work pieces. Soldering completes in following stages.

a) Wetting
b) Flowing
c) Bonding

Soldering is used for,

  • Sealing, as in automotive radiators or tin cans.
  • Electrical Connections.
  • Joining thermally sensitive components.
  • Joining dissimilar metals.

Read more : Differences between Welding, Soldering and BrazingOpens in a new tab.

(3) Brazing:

Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above melting point and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux. It then flows over the base metal (known as wetting) and is then cooled to join the workpieces together.

Depending upon the method of heating, brazing can be classified as
1. Torch brazing
2. Dip brazing
3. Furnace brazing
4. Induction brazing


  • Dissimilar metals which can not be welded can be joined by brazing.
  • Very thin metals can be joined.
  • Metals with different thickness can be joined easily.
  • In brazing thermal stresses are not produced in the work piece. Hence there is no distortion.
  • Using this process, carbides tips are brazed on the steel tool holders.


  • Brazed joints have lesser strength compared to welding.
  • Joint preparation cost is more.
  • Can be used for thin sheet metal sections.

Read more : Joining Process-Welding | Interview Question and AnswersOpens in a new tab.

More Resources /articles
Manufacturing Technology Notes , Articles
Machine Tool Articles , notes , Interview Que & Ans
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Product Ideas , Innovative Machine Ideas Projects
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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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