Hinges – Types of Hinges and Hinges Terminology
What is Hinge :
A hinge is a mechanical bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. Two objects connected by an ideal hinge rotate relative to each other about a fixed axis of rotation: all other translations or rotations being prevented, and thus a hinge has one degree of freedom. Hinges may be made of flexible material or of moving components. In biology, many joints function as hinges like the elbow joint.
Types Of Hinges :
There are many types of door hinges. The main types include:
- Spring hinge
- a spring-loaded hinge made to provide assistance in the closing or the opening of the hinge leaves. A spring is a component of a hinge, that applies force to secure a hinge closed or keep a hinge opened.
- Barrel hinge
- a sectional barrel secured by a pivot. A barrel is a component of a hinge, that has a hollow cylinder shaped section where the rotational bearing force is applied to the pivot, and may also have a screw shaped section for fastening and/or driving the pivot.
- Pivot hinges
- which pivot in openings in the floor and the top of the door frame. Also referred to as a double-acting floor hinge. This type is found in ancient dry stone buildings and rarely in old wooden buildings. These are also called haar-hung doors. They are a low cost alternative for use with light weight doors.
- Butt/Mortise hinges
- usually in threes or fours, which are inset (mortised) into the door and frame. Most residential hinges found in the U.S. are made of steel, although mortise hinges for exterior doors are often made of brass or stainless steel to prevent corrosion.
- Case hinges
- Case hinges are similar to a butt hinge however usually more of a decorative nature most commonly used in suitcases, briefcases and the like.
- Continuous hinges, or piano hinges
- This type of hinge is also known as a piano hinge. It runs the entire length of the door, panel, or box. Continuous hinges are manufactured with or without holes. These hinges also come in various thicknesses, pin diameters, and knuckle lengths.
- Concealed hinges
- Used for furniture doors (with or without self-closing feature, and with or without damping systems). They are made of two parts: One part is the hinge cup and the arm, the other part is the mounting plate.
- Butterfly hinges, or Parliament (UK) Hinges
- These were known as dovetail hinges from the 17th century onwards and can be found on old desks and cabinets from about 1670 until the 18th century. The form of these hinges varied slightly between manufacturers, and their size ranged from the very large for heavy doors to the tiniest decorative hinge for use on jewellery boxes.
- Flag hinges
- A flag hinge can be taken apart with a fixed pin on one leaf. Flag hinges can also swivel a full 360 degrees around the pin. Flag hinges are manufactured as a right hand and a left hand configuration.
- An early hinge and used on many kinds of interior and exterior doors and cabinets.
- H hinges
- Shaped like an H and used on flush-mounted doors. Small H hinges (3–4 in or 76–102 mm) tend to be used for cabinets hinges, while larger hinges (6–7 in or 150–180 mm) are for passage doors or closet doors.
- HL hinges
- Large HL hinges were common for passage doors, room doors and closet doors in the 17th, 18th and even 19th centuries. On taller doors H hinges were occasionally used in the middle along with the HL hinges.
Other types include:
- Counterflap hinge
- Flush hinge
- Coach hinge
- Rising Butt hinge
- Double action spring hinge
- Double action non-spring
- Tee hinge
- Friction hinge
- Security hinge
- Cranked hinge or stormproof hinge
- Lift-off hinge
- Self closing hinge
The rod that holds the leaves together, inside the knuckle.
The hollow—typically circular—portion creating the joint of the hinge through which the pin is set. The knuckles of either leaf typically alternate and interlock with the pin passing through all of them. (aka. loop, joint, node or curl)
The portions (typically two) that extend laterally from the knuckle and typically revolve around the pin.
Axial movement between the leaves along the axis of the pin. This motion allows the leaves to rotate without binding and is determined by the typical distance between knuckles (knuckle gap) when both edges of the leaves are aligned.
Thickness of the leaves.
Length from the outer edge of one leaf to the outer edge of the other leaf, perpendicularly across the pin (aka open width).
The length of the leaves parallel to the pin.
The typical length of an individual knuckle parallel to the pin.
Length from the center of the pin to the outer edge of the leaf.
Distance from the end of a knuckle to the same edge of its adjacent knuckle on the same leaf.
A colloquialism referring to loose angular movement of the leaves relative to the pin.
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