The project deals about the injection moulding machine.  The main principle is to compress the plastic material in a barrel and the compressing motion is developed by rotating the gear box arrangement.  The plastic material is heated by the heater surrounding the barrel. Then it is converted into molten state.  The molten plastic is injected through the nozzle in barrel to the die by the compressing force.  After completing this process, we will get the product from the die.  Commercial products like bushes, couplings, switches etc., can be produced.
See Also: Design and Fabrication Of Injection Moulding Machine Opens in a new tab.



The polymer material are converted into plastics and used as tubes, sheets, foams, rods, adhesives, etc.,  The theological properties, softening, tempering, stability, the size and shape are important in describing the method.  These methods are different kinds of plastics.  Broadly speaking the method may be discussed under the following headings,


          In this process the plastics are fabricated under the effect pressure and heat and both thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics may be starting materials.
          Thermoplastics are produced by this method.  In this the material is softened by heating and the hot softened plastic is forced under high pressure into the mold, when it is set by cooling and the mold is ejected.
          This involves the blowing of a volatile organic liquid, which is entrapped into a polymer network resulting in the formation of foamed plastics.  Foamed polystyrenes are produced in this process.


          The injection-moulding process is best suited for producing articles made of thermoplastic materials.  Here, the equipment cost is relatively high but the main attraction is the amenability of the injection-moulding process to a high production rate.  In injection molding, a definite quantity of molten thermoplastic material is injected under pressure into a relatively cold mold where it solidifies to the shape of the mould.
Gear Type Injection Moulding Machine
Gear Type Injection Moulding Machine

The injection – moulding machine is shown in the process consists of feeding the compounded plastic material as granules, pellets or powder through the hopper at definite time intervals into the hot horizontal cylinder where it gets softened.  Pressure is applied through a hydraulically driven piston to push the molten material through a cylinder into a mould fitted at the end of the cylinder.  While moving through the hot zone of the cylinder, a device called torpedo helps spread the plastic material uniformly around the inside wall of the hot cylinder sand thus ensures uniform heat distribution.  The molten plastic material from the cylinder is then injected through a nozzle material from the cylinder is then injected through a nozzle into the mould cavity. 

          The mould used, in its simplest form, is a two-part system.  One is a movable part and the other stationary.  The stationary part is fixed to the end of the cylinder while the movable part can be opened or locked on to the stationary part.  By using a mechanical locking device, the mould is proper held in position as the molten plastic material is injected under a pressure as high as 1500kg/cm.  The locking device has to be very skillfully designed in order to withstand high operating pressures.  Further more, a proper flow of the molten material to the interior regions of the mold is achieved by preheating the mould to an appropriate temperature.  Usually, this temperature is slightly lower than the softening temperature of the plastic material under going moulding.
          After the mould is filled with the molten material under pressure, then it is cooled by cold water circulation and then opened so as to eject the molded article.  The whole cycle could be repeated several time either manually of in an automated mode.


  1. The daily using components can be easily made.
  2. The cost of the project is very less.
  3. High electricity consumption.
  4. Textile products can be produced.
  5. Less skilled labour is enough.
  6. Different shape of the components can be made according to the die what are used. 


  •  Additional Cost is required for Gear box and motor.
  •  Heating coil consumes high current.


More Resources /articles
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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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