Design and Fabrication of Spiral tube water wheel Pump Report

Design and Fabrication of Spiral tube water wheel Pump Report


Water is used in almost anything and everything we do. From household activities to industries or irrigation, abundant water supply is favorable. Since assam is an agricultural state, and abundant water supply for this purpose is a must. Water is pumped to the agricultural field using various pumps using electricity and other fuels ,but this fuels are not in abundance and therefore makes it a costly affair.
An alternative solution to this problem could be a simple water wheel. The water wheel rotates with the energy of flowing water and thus omits the use of any kind of fuel. A water wheel consists of a large wheel basically made of wood or metal, and it consists of a number of blades or buckets arranged on the outer rim forming the driving surface. Water wheels have been used basically for agricultural purpose, lifting of water to a greater height since ancient times.

Types of Water Wheel
2. Overshot water wheel
3. Breast shot water wheel
4. Undershot water wheel


A spiral pump is basically used to pump water from a lower head to a higher head region. This pump uses a rotating pipe coil to pump water. Spiral pump is considered to be created in 1746 by H.A. Wirtz, of Switzerland. Wirtz invented the spiral pump to provide water to a higher head.

Working Principle of A Spiral Pump

The spiral tubes are fixed to the wheel so that the spiral pipes rotate, as the wheel itself rotates. The water collector connected to the outermost end of the spiral tube gulps in a good quantity of water and delivers this into the spiral tube as it rises above. This core of water passes through the spiral followed by a core of air as the wheel rotates. A new core of water is formed on every revolution, and a new core of air. Thus a series of cores of water and air are formed within each spiral pipe as the wheel rotates. Both spiral tubes deliver their water and air into the axle of the wheel and there it is led off through a water seal to a static rising pipe, which delivers water to the header tank. As the wheel revolves a pressure head develops within each coil of the spiral tube, water in the rising coils being higher than in the descending coils. These cores of water in the spiral tube compress the air between them as they travel around the spirals and both water and air are expelled under pressure into the axle. The flow of water up the static rising pipe is also accelerated by the compressed air escaping and expanding from the outlet at the axle of the wheel. This effect also helps to lift water to the header tank. 

Advantages of spiral water wheel pump

  • Water can be lifted to a higher height.
  • No drainage system is required for water transfer
  • Discharge of water is more by use of delivery pipes.
spiral tube water wheel mechanical projects
spiral tube water wheel mechanical projects


Water is required in abundance for household, industrial, agricultural purpose. Basically a large amount of water is required for agricultural purpose and the transfer of water from the nearby water bodies requires a large amount of fuel in one form or the other. Assam being an agricultural state having a large number of rivers, and keeping in mind the scarcity of electricity and other conventional fuel to lift or transport the water from the nearby river bodies to the agricultural fields a Spiral tube water wheel pump was proposed to be made as our final year project keeping in mind about the various parameters of the Bhogdoi River. Our main objective was to design a spiral tube water wheel pump where a head up to 20 ft. can be obtained. In the current project, a spiral tube water wheel pump, of a 3 meter diameter water wheel and a 1.5 meter diameter spiral tubeis designed and fabricated on the bank of the Bhogdoi River to pump water to the nearby areas to obtain the head of 20 ft.

Spiral Tube Water Wheel

The spiral tube water wheel is a modified form of water wheel where spiral tubes are used instead of buckets. The spiral tube wheel is run by the gear mechanism, the water wheel rotates due to the flow of the river water along with the help of blades which helps in running
the spiral tube wheel. The spiral tube is designed for a certain height and certain discharge and has a diameter of 1.5m.

The main parts of the spiral tube wheel are

  • Hollow Shaft
  • Spoke
  • Spiral Tube
  • Rotating Joint
  • Scoop

Hollow shaft:

It acts as a supporting device and it helps in rotating the spiral wheel. Water collected by the spiral tube is discharge at the outlet with help of hollow shaft,

Spiral tube:

It is a long tube coiled eccentrically on the hollow shaft which collects water at each rotation.


Scoop is typically made from a larger diameter pipe and can be used to vary the amount of water taken in with each revolution. The scoop should be approximately half the volume of the outer coil and should be enclosed in wire mesh to prevent debris from entering the coils.


The project is designed for the Bhogdoi River and the possible data’s, calculations, materials required for this project has been collected and the fabrication work has been completed, which was then installed in the Bhogdoi River following which the discharge and the head was being calculated and it was found that at a river velocity of 0.5m/sec a head of 18 ft is achieved and water is discharged at an average rate of 70 ml in 25.6 seconds , the details of which are presented in this report .The design calculation is done by considering the power input to the water wheel as 30 watt and discharge head 20 ft.


Design and Fabrication of Spiral tube water wheel Pump Report pdf Download Opens in a new tab.

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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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