What are the types of suspension systems in a vehicle
The chassis of vehicle is connected to the front and rear wheels through the medium of springs, shock absorbers and axles. All parts perform the function of protecting parts from shocks are known as suspension system.
The automobile chassis is indirectly connected with axles by springs. It is done to prevent the vehicle body from road shocks due to bounce, pitch, roll or sway. These road shocks provide an uncomfortable ride and also additional stress to the automobile frame and body.
Types of Suspension System
Generally, the following two basic types of suspension system are given below.
(i) Front end suspension
(a) Independent front suspension
(b) Rigid axle front suspension
(ii) Rear end suspension
(a) Longitudinal leaf spring rear suspension
(b) Transverse leaf spring rear suspension
(c) Coil spring rear end suspension.
Independent Front Suspension
The independent front suspension was developed in the 1930’s to improve vehicle ride control and riding comfort. In this type of suspension, each front wheel is mounted on its own axle and independently supported by a coil or torsion bar or leaf spring. This allows the wheels to respond individually to road conditions. Now-a-days, all vehicles use this suspension system. Coil springs are commonly used in this suspension system. This suspension system completely prevents the wheel wobble. A greater wheel movement is utilized without affecting the steering system. The steering conditions and qualities are improved by a wider spacing of the front springs.
Types of independent front suspensions:
1. Longitudinal suspension
2. Transverse suspension
3. Sliding suspension
4. Mac Pherson Strut and link type suspension
5. Parallelogram type suspension or Wishbone type
6. Trailing link type suspension
7. Vertical guide suspension.
Rigid Axle Front Suspension
Rigid axle front suspension is also called as dependent front suspension. This type of suspension uses a solid axle. This type of suspension has been universally used before drawing the independent front wheel suspension. This design consists of one steel or aluminium beam extending the width of the vehicle. This beam is held in place by leaf springs. This design also uses kingpins and bushings to attach the wheels outboard of the axle. Because of its load carrying ability, the solid axle is only used on heavy trucks, and off-road vehicles. It is not suitable for use on modern passenger cars for three important reasons.
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