What is Suspension System | Function of suspension system


The chassis of vehicle is connected to the front and rear wheels through the medium of springs, shock absorbers and axles. All parts perform the function of protecting parts from shocks are known as suspension system.
The automobile chassis is indirectly connected with axles by springs. It is done to prevent the vehicle body from road shocks due to bounce, pitch, roll or sway. These road shocks provide an uncomfortable ride and also additional stress to the automobile frame and body.

Read more : Introduction To Automobile Suspension System

Suspension system has a spring and damper. The energy of road shock produced by the spring oscillates. These oscillations are arrested by the damper known as shock absorber.

suspension system
suspension system

 Components of Suspension System

1. Springs are used to neutralize the shocks from the road surface.
2. Dampers, called shock absorbers, are used to improve a riding comfort by limiting the free oscillation of springs.
3. Stabilizer, called sway bar or anti-roll bar, is to prevent lateral swinging of the car.
4. A linkage system holds above components to control the longitudinal and lateral movements of wheels.

 Functions or Objectives of Suspension System

1. To eliminate road shocks from transmission to vehicle components.
2. To obtain good road holding while driving, cornering and braking.
3. To keep the proper steering geometry.
4. To obtain a particular height to body structure.
5. To resist the torque and braking reactions.
8. To maintain the stability of the vehicle while traveling over rough round or when turning in order to minimize the rolling, pitching or vertical movement tendency.
9. To safeguard the occupants against road shocks and provide a riding comfort.
10. To minimize the effects of stresses due to road shocks on the mechanism of the motor vehicle and provide a cushioning effect.
11. To keep the body perfectly in level while travelling over rough uneven ground. i.e. the up and down movements of wheels should be relative to the body.
12. To prevent the structure of the vehicle from shock loading and vibration due to irregularities of the road surface without impairing its stability.
13. To obtain the requisite height to body structure.
14. To support the body on the axles and keep the proper geometrical relationship between the body and wheels.

Requirements of Suspension System

1. There should be minimum deflection.
2. It should be of minimum weight.
3. It should have low maintenance and low operating cost.
4. It should have minimum tyre wear.
5. It should be of low initial cost.

Principles of Suspension System

The principles of the suspension system are due to springing action of motor vehicles.

1. Supporting the weight of vehicle.
2.Absorbing satisfactorily larger and smaller road impacts with the help of a single springing device.
3. The reduction of rolling or pitching of the body to a minimum design and attachment of springs.

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