Sorting of Objects Through Pick and Place Robotic arm Report

Sorting of Objects Through Pick and Place Robotic arm Report Download

ABSTRACT

The Project deals with an automated material handling system. It synchronizes the movement of robotic arm to pick the objects moving on a conveyor belt. It aims in classifying the coloured objects which are coming on the conveyor by picking and placing the objects in its respective pre-programmed place. Thereby eliminating the monotonous work done by human, achieving accuracy and speed in the work. The project involves colour sensors that senses the object’s colour and sends the signal to the microcontroller. The microcontroller sends signal to eight relay circuit which drives the various motors of the robotic arm to grip the object and place it in the specified location. Based upon the colour detected, the robotic arm moves to the specified location, releases the object and comes back to the original potion.

SENSING CIRCUIT:

This circuit can be used to sense and differentiate between different colours. This circuit demonstrates the principle and operation of a simple colour sensor using LDR. The circuit is divided into three parts: Detector (LDR), Comparator and Output. When light of a particular colour falls on LDR, its resistance decreases and an output voltage is produced. This voltage is dependent on the intensity and wavelength of
different colour. For it is needed to set reference voltage of comparator according to the requirement.
For example, If set reference voltage at positive pin with 0.38volts, the LDR becomes sensitive to blue light. When blue light falls on the LED, an output of approximate voltage 0.28V is produced, this glows the output LED.

TRANSFORMER:

By appropriate selection of the ratio of turns, a transformer thus allows an alternating current (AC) voltage to be “stepped up” by making Ns greater than Np, or “stepped down” by making Ns less than Np. Here, the 230volts power supply from the mains if transformed by a 12-0-12V step-down centre tap transformer. This AC voltage is needed to be converted to DC for supplying it to controllers and DC motors.
A transformer is a static device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled conductors—the transformer’s coils. A varying current in the first or primary winding creates a varying magnetic flux in the transformer’s core and thus a varying magnetic field through the secondary winding. This varying magnetic field induces a varying electromotive force (EMF) or “voltage” in the secondary winding. This effect is called mutual induction.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

CONVEYOR SYSTEM

FRAMES

Standard gravity conveyor frame widths are 305mm, 460mm and 610mm overall. Conveyor frames are stocked in both 1.5 metre and 3 metre lengths. Frames are supplied with either “butting plates” (standard) or hook and bar attachments to secure each
segment together.
Standard frames are supplied in a “hammer tone” blue spray painted finish. Other colours or finishes are available on request e.g., Powder coated, galvanised finish or stainless steel.

 ROLLERS

Standard rollers for the conveyor frames are 50.8mm diameter. They are available in PVC (25kg capacity), Black Steel and Galvanised Steel in both Medium Duty (140kg capacity) and Heavy Duty (200kg capacity) versions to suit varying loads or conditions. Stainless steel rollers for wash-down or corrosive applications are used. Spring loaded axles slot into holes along the frame. On PVC and Medium Duty
rollers one end is a D shape whilst the other is round. This allows for easy replacement of damaged rollers. Heavy Duty rollers are supplied with 12mm shafts. Precision or stainless steel bearings are available for frame work.

SUPPORTS

Two types of standard supports are available. Both styles provide adjustment from 600 – 1000mm to “Top of Roller”. Other support styles and complete frames are used to special support. RHS Supports are bolted to the underside of the conveyor frame via a crescent (smiley) plate. This plate provides allowance for any angular misalignment.

BELT CONVEYOR

A conveyor style utilizes a flat belt running on a flat fabricated steel deck or over rollers. They are used where smooth and quiet transport of product is desirable, and is ideally suited to irregular shaped product that cannot easily be moved on other conveyor styles.
Examples of applications other than cartons or tote bins would be the movement of floppy sacks or satchels, bags of powder or flour, or raw food products. This is an excellent conveyor for handling items that may have loose strings or tapes attached that would otherwise get caught in other conveyor styles.

CONVEYOR SYSTEM

Figure shows the overview of conveyor system.

conveyor system
conveyor system

ROBOTIC ARM

Drill a hole in the base 8 cm from the front and to the side so the disk is close to one side. This will leave room for the piston that moves it on the other side. Cut a 4 cm dowel and glue it in the base. Slide the disk over the dowel and glue down the 2.5 cm piece over the disk. This way the disk will rotate, but not come off.
The right side of the support structure has two screw eyes; the one on the inside is big enough for the syringe tube and is 2.5 cm up from the bottom. The one on the outside can be smaller since it only will have a wire in it, and it is . 5 of a cm from the bottom and .5 cm from the back (the long side of the base is the back). One can use a big one on the outside if that is all one have. Screw them in before one glue the pieces to the disk since it is easier (especially the inside one). Cut a piece of dowel to fit in the holes 6 cm from the bottom. It should be long enough to go to the outside edge of the support structure, so the structure is exactly 3.2 cm across. The long arm should be 3.2 cm across, (measure your drying long arm) so the space here has to Insert pegs in the top holes so they stick in 1 cm, this will hold the long arm. They don’t need to be glued since there is no motion that will work them loose, and it’s nice to be able to remove them let this dry and go on to the grabber arms.


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Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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