Organizing | Definition , Characteristics of Organizing , Advantages
According to Koontz and O’Donnell, “Organization involves the grouping of activities necessary to accomplish goals and plans, the assignment of these activities to appropriate departments and the provision of authority, delegation and co-ordination.” Organization involves division of work among people whose efforts must be co-ordinated to achieve specific objectives and to implement pre-determined strategies.
NATURE OR CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIZING
From the study of the various definitions given by different management experts we get the following information about the characteristics or nature of organization,
(1) Division of Work:
Division of work is the basis of an organization. In other words, there can be no organization without division of work. Under division of work the entire work of business is divided into many departments .The work of every department is further sub-divided into subworks.
In this way each individual has to do the saran work repeatedly which gradually makes that person an expert.
Under organizing different persons are assigned different works but the aim of all these persons happens to be the some – the attainment of the objectives of the enterprise. Organization ensures that the work of all the persons depends on each other’s work even though it happens to be different. The work of one person starts from where the work of another person ends. The non-completion of the work of one person affects the work of everybody. Therefore, everybody completes his work in time and does not hinder the work of others. It is thus, clear that it is in the nature of an organization to establish coordination among different works, departments and posts in the enterprise.
(3) Plurality of Persons:
Organization is a group of many persons who assemble to fulfill a common purpose. A single individual cannot create an organization.
(4) Common Objectives:
There are various parts of an organization with different functions to perform but all move in the direction of achieving a general objective.
(5) Well-defined Authority and Responsibility:
Under organization a chain is established between different posts right from the top to the bottom. It is clearly specified as to what will be the authority and responsibility of every post. In other words, every individual working in the organization is given some authority for the efficient work performance and it is also decided simultaneously as to what will be the responsibility of that individual in case of unsatisfactory work performance.
(6) Organization is a Structure of Relationship:
Relationship between persons working on different posts in the organization is decided. In other words, it is decided as to who will be the superior and who will be the subordinate. Leaving the top level post and the lowest level post
everybody is somebody’s superior and somebody’s subordinate. The person working on the top level post has no superior and the person working on the lowest level post has no subordinate.
(7) Organization is a Machine of Management:
Organization is considered to be a machine of management because the efficiency of all the functions depends on an effective organization. In the absence of organization no function can be performed in a planned manner. It is appropriate to call organization a machine of management from another point of view. It is that machine in which no part can afford tube ill-fitting or non-functional. In other words, if the division of work is not done properly or posts are not created correctly the whole system of management collapses.
(8) Organization is a Universal Process:
Organization is needed both in business and nonbusiness organizations. Not only this, organization will be needed where two or mom than two people work jointly. Therefore, organization has the quality of universality.
(9) Organization is a Dynamic Process:
Organization is related to people and the knowledge and experience of the people undergo a change. The impact of this change affects the various functions of the organizations. Thus, organization is not a process that can be decided for all times to come but it undergoes changes according to the needs. The example in this case can be the creation or abolition of a new post according to the need.
IMPORTANCE OR ADVANTAGES OF ORGANIZING
Organization is an instrument that defines relations among different people which helps them to understand as in who happens to be their superior and who is their subordinate. This information helps in fixing responsibility and developing coordination. In such circumstances the
objectives of the organization can be easily achieved. That is why, it is said that Organization Is a mechanism of management. In addition to that it helps in the other functions of management like planning, staffing, leading, controlling, etc. The importance of organization or its merits becomes clear from the following facts,
(1) Increase In Managerial Efficiency:
A good and balanced organization helps the managers to increase their efficiency. Managers, through the medium of organization, make a proper distribution of the whole work among different people according to their ability.
(2) Proper Utilization of Resources:
Through the medium of organization optimum utilization of all the available human and material resources of an enterprise becomes possible. Work is allotted to every individual according to his ability and capacity and conditions ant created to enable him to utilize his ability to the maximum extent. For example, if an employee possesses the knowledge of modem machinery but the modem machinery is not available in the organization, in that case, efforts are made to make available the modem machinery.
(3) Sound Communication Possible:
Communication is essential for taking the right decision at the right time. However, the establishment of a good communication system is possible only through an organization. In an organization the time of communication is decided so that all the useful information reaches the officers concerned which. in turn, helps the decision-making.
(4) Facilitates Coordination:
In order to attain successfully the objectives of the organization, coordination among various activities in the organization is essential. Organization is the only medium which makes coordination possible. Under organization the division of work is made in such a manner as to make all the activities complementary to each other increasing their interdependence. Inter-dependence gives rise to the establishment of relations which, in turn, increases coordination.
(5) Increase in Specialization:
Under organization the whole work is divided into different parts. Competent persons are appointed to handle all the sub-works and by handling a particular work repeatedly they become specialists. This enables them to have maximum work performance in the minimum time while the organization gets the benefit of specialization.
(6) Helpful in Expansion:
A good organization helps the enterprise in facing competition. When an enterprise starts making available good quality product at cheap rates, it increases the demand for its products. In order to meet the increasing demand for its products an organization has to expand its business. On the other hand, a good organization has an element of flexibility which far from impeding the expansion work encourages it.
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