Hydraulic shaper machine – Working, Circuits, Advantages, Application

Hydraulic shaper machine diagram, Working, Advantages

Shaping machine uses a single-point cutting tool.  This tool makes a reciprocating motion on the workpiece. In half reciprocating stroke the tool cuts the metal and in the second half, the tool returns to the original positions. Shaping machine is not a production machine. It is widely used in tool rooms of machine shops. 

To generate reciprocating motion of ram of shaping machine we having two alternatives:

  1. By using a four-bar mechanismOpens in a new tab. ( Cylinder, Piston, connecting rod, and crank ) driven by the motor. This machine is called a mechanical shaping machine.
  2. By using a hydraulic DA cylinder. This machine is called a hydraulic shaping machine.

A typical hydraulic drive for horizontal shaper is shown in Fig. A constant speed motor drives a hydraulic pump which delivers oil at a constant pressure to the line. A regulating valve admits oil under pressure to each end on the piston alternately, at the same time allowing oil from the opposite end of the piston to return to the reservoir.

Hydraulic shaper machine Diagram

hydraulic shaper Diagram
hydraulic shaper Diagram

Parts of Hydraulic shaper machine:

  • Fixed Double Acting Cylinder, – Fixed in RAM of Machine 
  • spool-type DC valve,
  • spool shaft stroke adjusting lever,
  • pump,
  • pressure relief valve,
  • return line with filter,
  • oil reservoir.

Working Of Hydraulic operated Shaper machine :  

The piston is pushed by the oil and, being connected to the ram carrying the tool. The admission of oil to each end of the piston, alternately, is accomplished with the help of trip dogs and pilot valve. As the ram moves and completes its stroke (forward or return) a trip dog will trip the pilot valve which operates the regulating valve. The regulating valve will admit the oil to the other side of the piston and the motion of the ram will get reversed. It is clear that the length of the ram stroke will depend upon the position of the t by unclamping and moving the trip dogs to the desired positions.

The above system is a constant pressure system. The velocity of the ram travel will be directly proportional to the oil pressure and since the piston area on which the oil pressure acts is greater as compared to the other end for which it gets reduced because of the piston rod. the hydraulic power to mechanical power for feeding the work past the tool.

Hydraulic  Shaping machine Circuit Diagram 

hydraulic shaper circuit Diagram
hydraulic shaper circuit Diagram

Shaping machine Forward Stroke : 

As shown in the figure, the pump is supplying oil to the Double actuating cylinder through the DC valve and through port B. Hence piston will move from right to left with force and this is a cutting stroke. at the end of stroke ‘ strike changing lever, will touch the adjustable stopper s1.

hydraulic shaping machine circuit
hydraulic shaping machine circuit

Shaping machine Backward Stroke : 

When lever touches the stopper s1 then spool shifts to right and flow directions in DC valve change as shown.  Now oil is entering through port A of Double-acting cylinder and position will move from left to right. During this stoke, tool post slightly lifts and thing and no questions of metal cutting. Again the lever is stopped by stopper s2 and the cycle repeats.

hydraulic shaping machine circuit return stroke
hydraulic shaping machine circuit return stroke

Advantages of Hydraulic Shaping machine

  1. Does not make any noise and operates very quietly
  2. Ability to stall against an obstruction without damage to the tool or the
  3. Ability to change length and position of stroke or speed while the machine is running
  4. The cutting and return speeds are practically constant throughout the stroke. This permits the cutting tool to work uniformly during the cutting stroke.
  5. The reversal of the ram is obtained quickly without any shock as the oil on the other end of the cylinder provides a cushioning effect.
  6. Offers great flexibility of speed and feed
  7. Relief Valve ensures proper pressure supply hence machine overloading is avoided.
  8. More strokes per minute can be achieved by consuming less time for reversal and return stroke.

Disadvantages of Hydraulic Shaping Machine: 

  • Hydraulic shaper machine is more costlier than mechanical shaper
  • The stopping point of the cutting stroke in a hydraulic shaper can vary depending upon the assistance offered to cutting by the work material.
  • Leakage of oil poses a major problem in machine tools. When the amount of leakage increases the capacity of the unit reduces and the efficiency goes down.

Application Hydraulic Shaper machine : 

  • To generate straight and flat surfaces
  • To smooth rough surfaces
  • To make internal splines
  • To make gear teeth
  • To make dovetail slides
  • To make keyways in pullies or gears

More Resources /articles

Machine Tool Articles , notes , Interview Que & Ans

Technical Mechanical Interview Question and Answers

Fluid Power System - Hydraulic and Pneumatic Notes


Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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