Design and Fabrication of Hydraulic Floor Crane Report Download – Mechanical projects
These hydraulic floor cranes provide an efficient, low cost alternative to other material handling equipments. Strong, robust, sturdy and built to very standard, these cranes are maneuverable in loading, unloading and shifting of heavy loads. Crane structure consists of chassis, vertical column, horizontal arm, and the hydraulic pump with cylinder assembly. The box crane can take heavy loads effectively, avoids damage under rough and unskilled handling.
The hydraulic cranes used in the industry are efficient but they only have the ability to lift the load and put it down at some other position. In this general design, the arm of the crane moves in the vertical plane only, i.e it has constrained motion. The aim of our project is to re-design the hydraulic crane and give its arm the rotational ability. The ball bearing provides rotational motion to the column. The hydraulic crane was invented in Newcastle by William Armstrong in about 1845 to help load coal into barges at the Quayside.
Parts and descriptions of hydraulic floor crane
1. Base plate/ Truck/Pallet
2. Vertical column
3. Ball bearings
4. Horizontal arm
6. Nuts and Bolts
9. Hydraulic jack
1. Base plate/ Truck/Pallet:-
It is a plate that serves as a base or support. It is used for carrying the overall weight of the project. It is made of mild steel. In this 4 bars are welded by using Electric Arc Welding to give it a rectangular shape. It is made up of cast iron.
A pulley is a wheel on an axle that is designed to support movement and change of direction of a cable or belt along its circumference. Pulleys are used in a variety of ways to lift loads, apply forces, and to transmit power. A pulley is also called a sheave or drum and may have a groove between two flanges around its circumference. The drive element of a pulley system can be a rope, cable, belt, or chain that runs over the pulley inside the groove.
3. Vertical column:-
This is mounted on the pallet/base plate/truck in longitudinal or Y-direction. It consists of a short handle which is welded to the vertical column for 360◦ rotation of the column so that the load can be dropped at the required position. It consists of roller bearing at the base in the circumferential manner to reduce friction at the time of rotating the vertical column.
4. Thrust ball bearings: –
Ball bearings are called as ‘anti friction bearings’. This is a misnomer because friction is always present in such bearings, mainly owing to rolling resistance, between the balls or rollers and the race. It carries the vertical thrust and axial load.
5. Horizontal arm: –
It is fixed horizontal arm on which our hydraulic piston and cylinder is mounted. It is fixed with the vertical column with welded joint which can rotate with the rotating vertical column to 360° rotation.
Hook is fixed with the cable moving on pulleys. Hook is used for attaching the load to horizontal arm which moves up and down due which the connected loads are lifted and rotates.
7. Nuts and Bolts:
Nuts and bolts are the hardware fasteners which are used to fasten the various different parts .in our project we have used around 20 nut and bolts.
9. Hydraulic jack: –
A hydraulic jack is a jack that uses a liquid to push against a piston. This is based on Pascal’s Principle. The principle states that pressure in a closed container is the same at all points. If there are two cylinders connected, applying force to the smaller cylinder will result in the same amount of pressure in the larger cylinder. However, since the larger cylinder has more area, the resulting force will be greater. In other words, an increase in area leads to an increase in force. The greater the difference in size between the two cylinders, the greater the increase in the force will be. A hydraulic jack operates based on this two cylinder system.
Application of Cranes
Cranes exist in an enormous variety of forms – each tailored to a specific use. Sometimes sizes range from the smallest jib cranes, used inside workshops, to the tallest tower cranes, used for constructing high buildings. For a while, mini – cranes are also used for constructing high buildings, in order to facilitate constructions by reaching tight spaces. Finally, we can find larger floating cranes, generally used to build oil rigs and salvage sunken ships.
These days hydraulics principle is being used extensively in material handling processes through cranes. Depending on the loads to be handled and the operations to be performed there are different types of cranes like Crawler Cranes, Truck Cranes, Floor Cranes.
Hydraulic Crawler cranes are used for picking and moving huge amount of loads. Generally loads are kept in containers for Bulk loading.
Hydraulic truck cranes have good flexibility with high load carrying capacities.
Hydraulic workshop foldable crane used in industries for moving small to medium sized materials from one place to other. The load carrying capacity can vary from 80 kg to half ton or more.
1. Most powerful means of lifting objects:-
It is one of the most powerful means of lifting objects is with the strength of a hydraulic crane. By harnessing the strength that liquid under pressure gives, and the ease with which it can be used, it is possible to transfer a relatively small amount of effort from one place to another, and hydraulic cranes are amongst the most efficient lifting systems available in the modern workplace.
2. Extremely stable in use:-
Because the hydraulic cranes use a fixed system of pipes, constant pressure can be maintained once a part of the system has been moved into place, and this makes them extremely stable in use, and able to support relatively large weights.
3. Very easy to maintain:-
Hydraulic cranes are amongst the simplest systems that you can use within any industrial process, and are very easy to maintain. Provided that all the pumps and pistons are regularly checked for any leaks, and potential stress points where the levers are supported are inspected for damage, the crane will continue to operate completely reliably for long periods of time
4. A very versatile tool:-
Most hydraulic cranes are comparatively light weight, and the ease with which they can be moved from one area to another within the factory or distribution center, makes them a very versatile tool with lots of uses on a day to day basis. From simple loading jobs in your loading bay area where the portable hydraulic cranes can be used to lift objects into a waiting truck to more complex jobs within the main factory, the lifts will come in very useful.
5. Quite simple Design:-
A hydraulic system works with a system of pumps and pistons that are filled with a liquid, usually a light oil or water. By moving the liquid under pressure from the pumps, pistons can be extended or reduced, and when these pistons are connected to a system of levers, the pistons can be used to lift surprisingly heavy weights.
The hydraulic crane which was manufactured has 12 parts. They are Base Plate/Truck/Pallet, Hydraulic Jack, Hydraulic hose, Vertical column, Ball bearing, Horizontal arm, Roller, Hook, Nuts and Bolts, Wheels, pulleys, cable, handle. Base plates are made of caste iron metal rod.
The rods are cut according to the dimensions and they are welded using metal arc welding. Then bearing was selected according to the thrust and axial load and vertical column are fitted on the bearing so that it can rotate to a 360°.The horizontal arm is hinged and contains pulley in it so that hook can travel up and down. Hydraulic system is selected according to the power required.
1. Arrangement of four wheels on the four the base plate.
2. Assembly of fixture for holding the bearing and the vertical column.
3. Assembly horizontal arm.
4. Assembly of hydraulic jack.
5. Connection of hoses with the hydraulic Jack.
6. Installing Pulleys in horizontal and vertical arm.
7. Installing high steel cable on the pulleys.
8. Attaching a hook on the high steel cable.
Design and Fabrication of Hydraulic Floor Crane Report PDF Download – Mechanical projects
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