What is HVAC -Basic Of Heating ,ventilation and Air Conditioning

HVAC Meaning :

HVAC stands for Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning , is commonly associated with heating and cooling industry. is a system or machine that performs three major functions by its three separate ducts i.e heating, cooling and ventilation of air, generally used in residential commercial or Industrial buildings.

HVAC – Heating, Ventilation, and Air Condition!

This is an area of mechanical engineering that is concerned with the design of these systems in building architecture.

  • Heating refers to the process of effective placement of heaters in the building to minimize energy costs but also create comfortable living environment
  • Air Conditioning refers to the process where air condition units are placed at strategic points in the building (either in the form of centralized or individual) such that the energy costs can be minimized. Alongside, it is also important that the heat in the building removed most effectively, fastest and create uniform temperature conditions.
  • Ventilation refers to the process where the stale air is removed. This is in concern with Kitchens etc.

HVAC combines energy calculations along with fluid flow (in the building) through Energy simulations and CFD and utilizes them in understanding building physics.

Heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC is an important part of residential structures such as single family homes, apartment buildings, hotels and senior living facilities, medium to large industrial and office buildings such as skyscrapers and hospitals, onboard vessels, and in marine environments, where safe and healthy building conditions are regulated with respect to temperature and humidity, using fresh air from outdoors.

Basic Of  HVAC in details :

  1. Heating :

  • Heaters are appliances whose purpose is to generate heat (i.e. warmth) for the building. This can be done via central heating. Such a system contains a boiler, furnace, or heat pump to heat water, steam, or air in a central location such as a furnace room in a home, or a mechanical room in a large building. The heat can be transferred by convection, conduction, or radiation.
hvac diagram- basic of hvac
hvac diagram- basic of hvac
  • In the case of heated water or steam, piping is used to transport the heat to the rooms. Most modern hot water boiler heating systems have a circulator, which is a pump, to move hot water through the distribution system (as opposed to older gravity-fed systems). The heat can be transferred to the surrounding air using radiators, hot water coils (hydro-air), or other heat exchangers. The radiators may be mounted on walls or installed within the floor to produce floor heat.

2. Ventilation

  • Ventilation is the process of changing or replacing air in any space to control temperature or remove any combination of moisture, odors, smoke, heat, dust, airborne bacteria, or carbon dioxide, and to replenish oxygen. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air with the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. It is one of the most important factors for maintaining acceptable indoor air quality in buildings. Methods for ventilating a building may be divided into mechanical/forced and natural types
  • Mechanical, or forced, ventilation is provided by an air handler (AHU) and used to control indoor air quality. Excess humidity, odors, and contaminants can often be controlled via dilution or replacement with outside air. However, in humid climates more energy is required to remove excess moisture from ventilation air.
ventilation -Basic of HVAC
ventilation -Basic of HVAC
  • Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhausts to control odors and sometimes humidity. Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level. Direct drive fans are available for many applications, and can reduce maintenance needs.
  • Ceiling fans and table/floor fans circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature by increasing evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. Because hot air rises, ceiling fans may be used to keep a room warmer in the winter by circulating the warm stratified air from the ceiling to the floor.
  • Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without using fans or other mechanical systems. It can be via operable windows, louvers, or trickle vents when spaces are small and the architecture permits

3. Air conditioning

An air conditioning system, or a standalone air conditioner, provides cooling and humidity control for all or part of a building. Air conditioned buildings often have sealed windows, because open windows would work against the system intended to maintain constant indoor air conditions. Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into the indoor heat exchanger section, creating positive air pressure.


Air conditioning and refrigeration are provided through the removal of heat. Heat can be removed through radiation, convection, or conduction. Refrigeration conduction media such as water, air, ice, and chemicals are referred to as refrigerants. A refrigerant is employed either in a heat pump system in which a compressor is used to drive thermodynamic refrigeration cycle, or in a free cooling system which uses pumps to circulate a cool refrigerant (typically water or a glycol mix).

Types Of HVAC Systems and Their Advantages
Types Of Gear Pump - Internal, External ,Gerotor , Lobe Pump
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