Automatic Hydro Pneumatic Lubrication System- Mechanical Project

SYNOPSIS

Automation in the modern world is inevitable.  Any automatic machine aimed at the economical use of man, machine, and material worth the most.
Lubrication is the lifeline for any industry.  Machines in various industries like textile, printing, machine tools, automobile industries and excavators are to be lubricated in order to reduce the friction created between moving parts.  If machines are not properly lubricated at regular intervals they are seized thus incurring heavy losses.  The bearings may wear out easily due to improper lubrication and thus reduce the efficiency of the machine.  Also lubrication counters corrosion by providing a protective film on the concerned surface.
The manufacturers of machinery are recommended to lubricate various points at a periodic interval.  Periodicity is in terms of machine hours in case of machinery and mileage in case of automobiles.  The lubrication of various points of machinery is also a difficult task in industries where more number of machines has been installed and needed lubrication like printing machinery, excavators, textile machinery etc, where the number of points to be lubricated may range from 40 to 50.
In above cases, lubrications are not only a time consuming process but also results in workman fatigue.  The centralized automatic lubricating system is used for easy and economical lubrication of multiple points from one centrally located distributor.  It is designed to deliver the right amount of lubricant at right time to every point by means of distributors connected by hoses.

INTRODUCTION

When two or more surfaces are in moving contact with each other friction is created between them.  Lubricants are used to reduce this friction.  In the process they also reduce the wear which the friction causes.  Lubrication also counters corrosion by providing a protective film on the concerned surface.
Automatic Hydro Pneumatic Lubrication System- Mechanical Project
Automatic Hydro Pneumatic Lubrication System- Mechanical Project


In the early years of industrial revolution lubrication of machinery was anything but systematic.  Lubricants were used haphazardly chiefly when friction began to wear out machinery rather than to prevent it from happening.  But as more and more sophisticated machinery were developed a whole range of lubricants were delivered to the concerned surfaces in the quantities and at speeds appropriate to the situation. 

WORKING PRINCIPLE 

The working of the lubricating system is as follows.  The air from atmosphere is drawn into the air compressor and is compressed.  The air compressor is driven by the motor.  The high pressure air is stored in the air tank. Our system incorporates a solenoid valve and an electronic timer.  Timer may be made to operate at periodic interval of time.  Whenever the timer is on, the solenoid valve gets opened.  The air from the air tank is now admitted to the rear end of the double acting cylinder.  Now the compressed air pushed the piston of the pneumatic cylinder forward.  This makes the plunger in the distributor to push the oil towards the outlet of the distributor.  So the oil is supplied to various parts where the hoses are connected. The valve is 5/2 solenoid valve which makes the piston of the pneumatic cylinder to its position (left end) after one stroke.  During the return stroke a partial vacuum is created at the front end of the oil cylinder.  To compensate the vacuum, the oil from the container enters the chamber.
 During the forward stroke of piston the oil contained in the chamber is pushed out with pressure.  The pressurized lubricating oil is then taken to required points through distributors. Flow control valves are provided in each hose so as to vary the flow of oil to different parts.
Sequence (i)
When the solenoid valve actuates, the air from the compressor enters the air cylinder and pushes the piston forward.  This in turn pushes the piston in the oil cylinder.
Sequence (ii)
When the solenoid valve closes, the air from the compressor to the air cylinder is exhausted through the exhaust port of solenoid valve.  Since the air cylinder is double acting, the piston retraces its path which in turn pulls the piston in the oil cylinder, there by creating vacuum in oil cylinder.  Then the oil from the reservoir is sucked into cylinder to compensate the partial vacuum.
Sequence (iii)
Again when the valve open, air from the compressor enters the cylinder and pushes the piston which in turn pushes the piston in oil cylinder.  The oil is pumped to the distributor from where it is taken to various parts to be lubricated.

APPLICATIONS

When any machine runs moving parts make contact with each other giving rise to what is known as friction which acts as a parasite sucking or consuming most parts of the available power. So in order to avoid or in actual terms reduce friction, a suitable medium should be applied between them which minimize this metal to metal contact.  So this medium, aptly called the lubricant should be supplied between the moving parts.  Besides reducing friction, this lubricant has also the function of heat discipline and cleaning the parts so the lubricant is actually called the life blood of the machinery.
When machinery is operated on a longer time basis a need arises for the lubricant namely a lubricating oil of the correct viscosity as the application dictates to be supplied continuously.  This need is taken up by an auxiliary system to any machinery called the lubricant system. In order to lubricate the machinery they have to be kept of from working which reduces precious working hours this leads to production losses. Our lubrication system namely the automatic centralized lubrication was designed with an out look of removing the hassles of periodic manual lubrication, stopping the machinery for lubrication etc.  It has an added advantage of serving multiple service points at a single time this system can be adopted for any machinery like lathes, milling machines which need a constant supply of lubricant.
 A miniature version of our system can be also used in heavy duty automobiles like earth movers trucks etc., Which till now needs manual lubrication for its suspension etc.  Our system can work on the pneumatic compressor available on the heavy duty automobiles. A bigger version of our system can be used in industries where machinery needs a constant supply of lubricant.  This reduces constant manual supervision and reduces this need for shutting off the machinery for lubrication.
The service time for particular machinery can be preset on a timer and the system automatically fills up the service points on the machinery. Also the system can be attached to heavy vehicle which required lubrication in regular intervals of mileage.  In this case, the timer may be attached to the odometer such that if gets actuated when the meter readings coincide with the preset intervals.  The system can be easily attached to available compressor in heavy vehicle.

ADVANTAGES

  • All points are lubricated simultaneously
  • Timer can also be used to lubricate the points at regular intervals
  • Requirement of man power for this system is not necessary
  • Wastage of lubricant is eliminated
  • Uniform flow of lubricant to all parts
  • Grease nipples are replaced by small adapters
  • Wear and tear lubricating components due to improper maintenance is eliminated
  • As the wastage of lubricant is avoided, lubrication cost is less
  • Equipment such of lubricant is avoided, lubrication cost is less.
  • The components can be lubricated even when the vehicle is in operation.
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