A heat balance sheet is an account of heat supplied and heat utilized in various ways in the system. Necessary information concerning the performance of the engine is obtained from the heat balance.

The heat balance is generally done on second basis or minute basis or hour basis.

The heat supplied to the engine is only in the form of fuel-heat and that is given by

Qs = mf X CV

Where mf is the mass of fuel supplied per minute or per sec. and CV is the lower calorific value of the fuel.

The various ways in which heat is used up in the system is given by

(a) Heat equivalent of BP = kW = kJ/sec. = kJ/min.

(b) Heat carried away by cooling water
= Cpw X mw (Two – Twi) kJ/min.

  • mw is the mass of cooling water in kg/min or kg/sec circulated through the cooling jacket 
  • (Two – Twi) is the rise in temperature of the water passing through the cooling jacket of the engine 
  • Cpw is the specific heat of water in kJ/kg-K.

(c) Heat carried away by exhaust gases
= mg Cpg (Tge – Ta) (kJ/min.) or (kJ/sec)


  • mg is the mass of exhaust gases in kg/min. or kg/sec and it is calculated by using one of the methods already explained.
  •  Tg= Temperature of burnt gases coming out of the engine.
  • Ta = Ambient Temperature.
  • Cpg = Sp. Heat of exhaust gases in (kJ/kg-K)

(d) A part of heat is lost by convection and radiation as well as due to the leakage of gases. Part of the power developed inside the engine is also used to run the accessories as lubricating pump, cam shaft and water circulating pump. These cannot be measured precisely and so this is known as  unaccounted ‘losses’.

How to calculate heat Balance Sheet For IC Engine
How to calculate heat Balance Sheet For IC Engine

This unaccounted heat energy is calculated by the different between heat supplied Qs and the sum of (a) + (b) (c). 

The results of the above calculations are tabulated in a table and this table is known as “Heat Balance Sheet”. It is generally practice to represent the heat distribution as percentage of heat supplied. This is also tabulated in the same heat balance sheet.

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