The main objective of our project to design and construct an electrically operated engine i.e. Electromagnetic Engine. Our engine is totally different from ordinary IC Engine, because of the inventory advancement in operating principles. We have changed the operating principle of IC Engine by using electromagnetic effect instead of combustion of fossil fuels. This engine works on the principle of magnetic repulsion between two magnets. This electromagnetic engine consists of two magnets, one of them is an Electromagnet and other one is a Permanent Magnet. Permanent Magnet acts as piston and Electromagnet is located at the top of the cylinder instead of spark plug and valve arrangement in IC Engines. In this way this engine does not contain any spark plug and fuel injection system. The Electromagnet is energized by a battery source of suitable voltage and the polarities of electromagnet are set in such a way that it will repel the permanent magnet i.e. piston from TDC to BDC, which will result in the rotary motion of crank shaft. When the piston is at BDC the supply of Electromagnet is discontinued, the permanent magnet which was repelled to BDC will come back to its initial position i.e. TDC. This procedure completes one revolution of crank shaft i.e. our output work. The total power supplied by battery will be just to fulfill the copper losses of winding and power required to magnetize the windings.
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by the flow of electric current. The magnetic field disappears when the current is turned off. Electromagnets are widely used as components of other electrical devices, such as motors, generators, relays, loudspeakers, hard disks, MRI machines, scientific instruments, and magnetic separation equipment, as well as being employed as industrial lifting electromagnets for picking up and moving heavy iron objects like scrap iron.
A simple electromagnet consisting of a coil of insulated wire wrapped around an iron core. The strength of magnetic field generated is proportional to the amount of current.
Electromagnetic engine uses only magnets for its operation. The cylinder must take care of unwanted magnetic field and other losses further cylinder material itself should not get attracted to the magnet and resist the movement of the piston.
The hollow piston casing is made up of non-magnetic stainless steel, titanium or similar materials of high resistivity and low electrical conductivity. Alternatively, piston casing can also be made up of non-metallic, thermal resistant materials as well or can be made by integrating both non-magnetic and non-metallic materials.
In a reciprocating engine, the connecting rod is used to connect the piston to the crankshaft. This converts the linear motion or reciprocating motion of the piston to the circular motion of the crankshaft. The material of the connecting rod is cast iron and the magnetic fields are contained inside the cylinder and the connecting rod will not be affected much. so, the connecting rod is same as that of an Internal combustion engine. Hence, no modification is required.
An electromagnetic coil is formed when an insulated solid copper wire is wound around a core or form to create an inductor or electromagnet. When electricity is passed through a coil, it generates a magnetic field. One loop of wire is usually referred to as a turn or a winding and a coil consists of one or more turns. For use in an electronic circuit, electrical connection terminals called taps are often connected to a coil. Coils are often coated with varnish or wrapped with insulating tape to provide additional insulation and secure them in place. A completed coil assembly with one or more set of coils and taps is often called the windings.
Where high values of load current are necessary, the lead-acid cell is the type most commonly used. The electrolyte is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid (H₂SO₄). In the application of battery power to start the engine in an auto mobile, for example, the load current to the starter motor is typically 200 to 400A One cell has a nominal output of 2.1V, but lead-acid cells are often used in a series combination of three for a 6-V battery and six for a 12-V battery.
FABRICATION and WORKING
The working of the electromagnetic engine is based on the principle of magnetism. A magnet has two poles a north pole and a south pole. Magnetism is a class of physical phenomenon that includes forces exerted by magnets on other magnets. By principle of magnetism, when like poles of a magnet is brought together they repel away from each other. When unlike poles are brought near each other they attract. This is same for the case of an electromagnet and a permanent magnet too. So the idea is to modify the piston head and cylinder head into magnets so that force can be generated between them.
This working of the electromagnetic engine is based on attraction & repulsive force of the magnet. The engine greatly resembles the working of a two-stroke engine. To start, let us begin from the situation, when piston is located in the lower position. The coil is connected through the battery, the copper coil is energized to produced the magnetic field the piston in side of the large power Neodymium Iron Boron magnets, the piston moved upper and lower the fly wheel connected through the piston link the copper coil energized the piston move upward and copper coil is de-energized the piston move to downward. With the help of relay and control unit. The continuous process through piston is move to (up and down) with also rotated the fly wheel. The arrangement has shown in the
Electromagnetic engines working are based on the principle of interaction between the magnetic field Permanent magnet is fixed in the piston and iron material is connected to copper coil. So that the iron material is converted into electromagnet when the power supply is given to it. When piston is located in the lower position, the coil is connected through the battery. The copper coil is energized to produce the magnetic field. When the copper coil energized the piston move upward and copper coil is de- energized the piston move to downward, with the help of relay and control unit. The continuous process through piston is move to (up and down) with also rotated the fly wheel.
Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.