Construction and working of lead acid battery used in automobiles


The container is made up of acid resistance hard rubber or plastic. It is divided into compartment .
Each compartment form a cell of 2v. At bottom of container bridge are provided form space for sediment collection. This avoid danger of shock circuit.

There are two type of battery plate positive and negative.Each plate is made up of frame or rigid of an alloy of Lead and Antimony. The function of grid to hold active material and carry current. Active material in positive plate is Red led (Pb3O4) and in negative plate it is Litharge (PbO) . The negative plate group contain one
plate more than positive plate group.
battery construction and working
battery construction and working

: To avoid direct contact and thus short circuiting of positive and negative plate a thin sheet of some non conducting material inserted between them called Separator.

 Cell Cover :

The are moulded from hard rubber each cell cover contain hole for positive and negative plate , vent and filler opening. Vents are provided to escape gas.

After assembling completely battery filled with electrolyte. It is solution of Sulphuric Acid (H2So4) contain approximately one part of sulphuric acid and two part of water by volume.


The potential difference between two metals, which are immersed in an electrolyte is called cell voltage. A battery converts chemical energy of metal submerged in electrolyte into electrical energy by means of electrochemical oxidation-reduction process.


Discharging Of the Battery Chemical Reaction
Discharging Of the Battery Chemical Reaction
When battery terminals are connected to an external load the sulphate ions in the electrolyte combined with positive and negative plate forming lead sulphate and electrical energy is released. Oxygen in active material of positive plate combines with hydrogen from sulphuric acid to form water which reduce the concentration of the acid in electrolyte. As discharge is continuous , the electrolyte become weaker. Therefore the voltage become lower as concentration of acid reduce. Eventually the battery losses its power of delivering electricity at an impressive intensity of voltage and it is said to be discharged.
Chemical Reaction :
Chemical Reaction of battery charging and discharging
Chemical Reaction of battery charging and discharging
Charging :
The active chemical can be restored to the charged state by passing current in opposite direction.
This is said to be charge condition of battery.
how Automobile battery charge
how battery charge
Article by:
K B P Poly Kopergaon

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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