Centrifugal Casting- Advantages and Disadvantages Of Centrifugal Casting

In this article we will see casting process type- Centrifugal Casting types, Working principle, Centrifugal Casting advantages and Disadvantages .

Casting Processes

The casting process involves pouring of liquid metal in to a mold cavity and allowing it to solidify to obtain the final casting. The flow of molten metal into the mold cavity depends on several factors like minimum section thickness of the part, presence of corners, non-uniform cross-section of the cast, and so on. The casting processes can be broadly classified into expendable mold casting and permanent mold casting processes.

Read More: Types Of Casting Processes and their Applications

Centrifugal Casting

In this process, the mold is rotated rapidly about its central axis as the metal is poured into it. Because of the centrifugal force, a continuous pressure will be acting on the metal as it solidifies. The slag, oxides and other inclusions being lighter, get separated from the metal and segregate towards the center. This process is normally used for the making of hollow pipes, tubes, hollow bushes, etc., which are axisymmetric with a concentric hole. Since the metal is always pushed outward because of the centrifugal force, no core needs to be used for making the concentric hole. The mold can be rotated about a vertical, horizontal or an inclined axis or about its horizontal and vertical axes simultaneously. The length and outside diameter are fixed by the mold cavity dimensions while the inside diameter is determined by the amount of molten metal poured into the mold.Figure (Vertical Centrifugal Casting), Figure ( Horizontal Centrifugal Casting)

Horizontal centrifugal casting
Horizontal centrifugal casting

Centrifugal casting Process : 

In centrifugal casting process, the molten metal poured at the center of a rotating mold or die. Because of the centrifugal force, the lighter impurities are crowded towards the center of the case. For producing a hollow part, the axis of rotation is placed at the center of the desired casting. The speed of rotation is maintained high so as to produce a centripetal acceleration of the order of 60 g to 75 g. The centrifuge action segregates the less dense nonmetallic inclusions near to the center of rotation that can be removed by machining a thin layer. No cores are therefore required in casting of hollow parts although solid parts can also be cast by this process.
The centrifugal casting is very suitable for axisymmetric parts. Very high strength of the casting can be obtained. Since the molten metal is fed by the centrifugal action, the need for complex metal feeding system is eliminated. Both horizontal and vertical centrifugal castings are widely used in the industry.

vertical axis centrifugal  casting
vertical axis centrifugal casting

Advantages of Centrifugal Casting : 

  • Formation of hollow interiors in cylinders without cores
  • Less material required for gate
  • Fine grained structure at the outer surface of the casting free of gas and shrinkage cavities and porosity

Disadvantages of Centrifugal Casting : 

  • More segregation of alloy component during pouring under the forces of rotation
  • Contamination of internal surface of castings with non-metallic inclusions
  • Inaccurate internal diameter
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