Different types Of Chassis Frames Used in Automobile vehicles
Body and Chassis:
Automobile chassis and frame (structure) support various components and body of the vehicle in addition to loads it is supposed to carry.
There are two principal types of auto body construction. The unibody construction, and the body and chassis frame construction.
In the unibody or integral construction, individual metal parts are welded together to make up the body assembly and provide overall body rigidity through an integral all steel welded construction.
The attachment provisions for the power train and suspension systems are provided by the under body area, which also contributes to the strength of the vehicle. The floor plan and related sections become an integral part of the chassis frame.
Although a separate frame is used on commercial vehicles, the majority of modern cars use integral construction, which produces a stronger and lighter vehicle and is cheaper on mass production.
Whether it is a car or a truck, the automobile structure has to withstand various static and dynamic loads.
Chassis Operating Conditions:
The design of an automobile chassis requires prior understanding of the kind of conditions the
chassis is likely to face on the road.
The chassis generally experiences four major loading situations that include,
(i) vertical bending,
(ii) longitudinal torsion,
(iii) lateral bending, and
(iv) horizontal lozenging.
The chassis of an automobile consists of following components suitably mounted:
Engines and the radiator, Transmission system consisting of the clutch, gear box, propeller shaft and the rear axle, suspension system, road wheels, steering system, brakes and fuel tank.
Classification of Chassis:
Conventional control chassis: The engine is mounted in front of the driver’s cabin.
Semi-forward control chassis: The engine is so mounted that half of it is in the drivers cabin, whereas the other half is in front, outside the drivers cabin.
Full forward control Chassis:The engine is mounted completely inside the driver’s cabin.
TYPES OF CHASSIS FRAMES:
There are three types of frames
1. Conventional frame
2. Integral frame
3. Semi-integral frame
1. Conventional frame:
It has two long side members and 5 to 6 cross members joined together with the help of rivets and bolts. The frame sections are used generally.
a. Channel Section – Good resistance to bending
b. Tabular Section – Good resistance to Torsion
c. Box Section – Good resistance to both bending and Torsion
2. Integral Frame:
This frame is used now a day in most of the cars. There is no frame and all the assembly units are attached to the body. All the functions of the frame carried out by the body itself. Due to elimination of long frame it is cheaper and due to less weight most economical also. Only disadvantage is repairing is difficult.
3. Semi – Integral Frame:
In some vehicles half frame is fixed in the front end on which engine gear box and front suspension is mounted. It has the advantage when the vehicle is met with accident the front frame can be taken easily to replace the damaged chassis frame. This type of frame is used in some of the European and American cars.
Three types of steel sections are most commonly used for making frames: