What is Swaging process – Working Of Swaging Machine

What is Swaging process – Working Of Swaging Machine

What is Swaging Operation :

Swaging is the action-oriented process for shaping a swage. A swage is the shaped tool used to transform an object’s shape into the desired form by bending or shaping. Swaging is used in the metalworking field, known as metallurgy, to serve a variety of purposes. As a noun, swaging can transform a piece of metal into a desired shape through pressure or hammering. Swaging results in taking an object and giving it a ridge, groove or some shape of mold. The process can alter the diameter of rods, hoses and/or tubes. Examples of swaging include pipefitting, hose fitting and decorative metal work. Think of any number of metal furniture pieces, and you can notice how the process of swaging was used to properly form the metal into these desired shapes. A case in point involves the casters used on chairs or other furniture legs. Look in your office meeting room and notice that beautiful silver coffee table with its antique-appearing curved legs. Those legs were created using the process of swaging.

types of swaging
Swaging can be classified as internal, external, combination or dual varieties.

Internal swaging can provide grip to hose material, and be used to improve flow area through tubing or hoses. In fact, this form of swaging increases the size of applicable items, and plays a key role in lowering the risks of bacteria accumulating near the end of the hose or tube. It also helps to reduce turbulence by providing a firm mechanical adhesiveness and bond.

External swaging, as the term implies, is the opposite of internal swaging.

Combination swaging is similar to external swaging, except for the fact it involves welding ends together. It also is known to be more cost-effective than external swaging. Combination swaging involves compressing the size of items to suit the purpose.

Dual swaging uses both internal and external swaging and involves compressing both aspects by the same amount.

Swaging Process :

In this process, the diameter of a rod or a tube is reduced by forcing it into a confining die. A set of reciprocation dies provides radial blows to cause the metal to flow inward and acquire the form of the die cavity. The die movements may be of in – and – out type or rotary. The latter type is obtained with the help of a set of rollers in a cage, in a similar action as in a roller bearing. The workpiece is held stationary and the dies rotate, the dies strike the workpiece at a rate as high as 10 – 20 strokes per second.

In tube swaging, the tube thickness and / or internal dia of tube can be controlled with the use of internal mandrels. For small – diameter tubing, a thin rod can be used as a mandrel; even internally shaped tubes can be swaged by using shaped mandrels.

swaging process
swaging process

The process is quite versatile. The maximum diameter of work piece that can be swaged is limited to about 150 mm; work pieces as small as 0.5 mm diameter have been swaged. The production rate can be as high as 30 parts per minute depending upon the complexity of the part shape and the part handling means adopted.

The parts produced by swaging have tolerance in the range ± 0.05 mm to ± 0.5 mm and improved mechanical properties. Use of lubricants helps in obtaining better work surface finish and longer die life. Materials, such as tungsten and molybdenum are generally swaged at elevated temperatures as they have low ductility at room temperature. Hot swaging is also used to form long or steep tapers, and for large reductions.

Swaging is a noisy operation. The level of noise can be, however, reduced by proper mounting of the machine or by the use of enclosure.


  • Used to close tubes, produce tapering, clamping and steps in sections
  • Many section types possible either parallel or tapered
  • Tool shafts
  • Punches
  • Chisels
  • Handles
  • Exhaust pipes
  • Cable assemblies
  • Architectural work


  • Complexity fairly high. Round, square, rectangular and polygon sections possible either parallel or tapered. Splines and contoured surfaces also possible.
  • Holes possible, but only through the length of the part.
  • No undercuts or inserts possible.
  • Draft angles ranging 0–3.5°.
  • Minimum section =2.5 mm.
  • Maximum section =50 mm.
  • Minimum solid diameter =Ø2.5 mm.
  • Maximum solid diameter =Ø150 mm.
  • Maximum tube diameter =Ø350 mm.
  • Minimum length =1.5 mm.
  • Maximum length =250 mm.

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

One thought on “What is Swaging process – Working Of Swaging Machine

  1. very good explanation of swaging. In my application I am interested in a swage cutter. The cutter will fit over a vertical shaft with threading (wheel stud on a wheel drum) and the swage cutter will cut four “swages” machine stamped to the vertical wheel stud. and applying pressure inward for a positive and strong wheel lug tightening process. Once sufficient metal is removed from the drum by the cutter and the swages no longer are present against the vertical shaft (wheel lug), theory suggests the wheel stud may be pressed thru the drum, allowing the wheel stud that is corrupt with misguided threads (4-5 threads at the base of the lug) to be replaced. The newly installed wheel stud with knurls will be installed with a press and through the existing hole less the material on the top surface of the drum removed from the swage cutter. The use of epoxy in the cut-out space on the topside of the drum will present a flat surface compatible for the tire and rim.

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