Introduction To Hydraulic Turbine and Classification Of hydraulic turbine

Introduction To Hydraulic Turbine and Classification Of hydraulic turbine

HYDRAULIC TURBINES —DEFINITION

The hydraulic turbine is a prime mover that uses the energy of flowing water and converts  is  into  the  mechanical  energy  in  the  form  of  rotation  of  the  runner.  (A prime mover is a machine which uses the raw energy of a substance and converts it into the mechanical energy.) Since the fluid medium is water, these turbines are also known   as   the   ‘ water   turbines’ .   Hydraulic   turbines   coupled   with   hydro    — generators form the so  —called ‘ hydrounits’ which are widely used now a days for generating electrical power.


See also: 
Introduction to Hydraulic (Water) Turbine -Working Of Impulse and Reaction Turbine

types of hydraulic turbine-min
types of hydraulic turbine-min

Classification of Hydraulic turbines:


1) Based on type of energy at inlet to the turbine:

  • Impulse Turbine : The energy is in the form of kinetic form. e.g: Pelton wheel, Turbo wheel.
  • Reaction Turbine : The energy is in both Kinetic and Pressure form. e.g: Tubular, Bulb, Propellar, Francis turbine.
Example Of Turbine Pelton Wheel
Example Of Turbine Pelton Wheel


2) Based on direction of flow of water through the runner:

  • Tangential flow: water flows in a direction tangential to path of rotational, i.e. Perpendicular to both axial and radial directions.
  • Radial outward flow e.g : Forneyron turbine.
  • Axial flow : Water flows parallel to the axis of the turbine. e.g: Girard, Jonval, Kalpan turbine.
  • Mixed flow : Water enters radially at outer periphery and leaves axially. e.g : Modern Francis turbine.

3) Based on the head under which turbine works:

  • High head, impulse turbine. e.g : Pelton turbine.
  • Medium head,reaction turbine. e.g : Francis turbine.
  • Low head, reaction turbine. e.g : Kaplan turbine, propeller turbine.

4) Based on the specific speed of the turbine:

  • Low specific speed, impulse turbine. e.g : Pelton wheel.
  • Medium specific speed, reaction turbine. e.g : Francis wheel.
  • High specific speed, reaction turbine. e.g : Kaplan and Propeller turbine.
Classification According to Specific Speed Of the turbine 
Classification According to Specific Speed Of the turbine

5) Based on the name of the originator:

  • Impulse turbine – Pelton wheel, Girard, Banki turbine.
  • Reaction turbine – Forneyron, Jonval, Francis, Dubs, Deriaze, Thomson kalpan, Barker, Moody, Nagler, Bell.

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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