Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine

Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine

The hydraulic turbine is a prime mover that uses the energy of flowing water and converts  is  into  the  mechanical  energy  in  the  form  of  rotation  of  the  runner.

Classification of Hydraulic turbines:

1) Based on type of energy at inlet to the turbine:

Impulse Turbine : The energy is in the form of kinetic form. e.g: Pelton wheel, Turbo wheel.
Reaction Turbine : The energy is in both Kinetic and Pressure form. e.g: Tubular, Bulb, Propellar, Francis turbine.

Read More: Impulse and Reaction turbine Working PrincipleOpens in a new tab.

Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbines 
Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbines
Impulse Turbine
Reaction Turbine
All the available energy of the fluid is converted into kinetic energy by an
efficient nozzle that forms a free jet
Only a portion of the fluid energy is transformed into kinetic energy before the
fluid enters the turbine runner.
The jet is unconfined and at atmospheric pressure throughout the action of water
on the runner, and during its subsequent flow to the tail race.
Water enters the runner with an excess pressure, and then both the velocity and
pressure change as water passes through the runner
Blades are only in action when they are in front of the nozzle.
Blades are in action all the time.
Water may be allowed to enter a part or whole of the wheel circumference
Water is admitted over the circumference of the wheel.
The wheel does not run full and air has free access to the buckets.
Water completely fills the vane passages throughout the operation of the turbine.
Casing has no hydraulic function to perform; it only serves to prevent splashing and
to guide the water to the tail race.
Pressure at inlet to the turbine is much higher than the pressure at outlet ; unit has
to be sealed from atmospheric conditions and, therefore, casing is absolutely
Unit is installed above the tail race.
Unit is kept entirely submerged in water below the tail race.
Flow regulation is possible without loss.
Flow regulation is always accompanied by loss.
When water glides over the moving blades, its relative velocity either remains
constant or reduces slightly due to friction.
Since there is continuous drop in pressure during flow through the blade passages,
the relative velocity does increase.

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

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