Split type air conditioner | Diagram , Working , Parts

Split type air conditioner | Diagram , Working , Parts

Introduction to Air Conditioning :
Air conditioner is a device used to condition the air according to human comfort. Air is consisting of humidity, temperature, dust etc. The presence of these constituents makes the people to feel discomfort and reduces the efficiency of persons. Therefore air has to be conditioner depending upon the requirement. Generally in coastal areas the humidity level is more hence wet air prevails, so air has to be dehumidified using air conditioner. In the tropical areas dry air prevails hence air has to be humidified using air conditioner. Thus air conditioner may be classified according to season as Summer

Air Conditioner & Winter Air Conditioner.

Types of Air Conditioner:
1. Window Air Conditioner
2. Spilt type Air Conditioner

Read more : Windows air Conditioning | Working , Components and Application

Split air conditioners are used for rooms and halls, usually in places where window air conditioners cannot be installed. However, these days many people prefer split air conditioner units even for places where window air conditioners can be fitted.

The split type room air conditioner is comprised of two parts.

1) The outdoor unit,
The outdoor unit, fitted outside the room, houses components like the compressor, condenser and expansion valve.

2) The indoor unit.
The indoor unit comprises the evaporator or cooling coil and the cooling fan. The split air conditioner can be used to cool one or two rooms.

This unit houses important components of the air conditioner like the compressor, condenser coil and also the expansion coil or capillary tubing. This unit is installed outside the room or office space which is to be cooled.

It consists of the following parts :
a) Compressor is the main component of the system and is used to compress the refrigerant.
b) Condenser Coil is used to reject heat from the refrigerant to the out side air.
c) Condenser Fan is used in air-cooled condenser to help move the air molecules over the surface of the condensing coil, hence rejecting the heat form the indoor to the space outside the building.
d) Condenser Motor is located here. The motor usually has two to three speeds. Smaller unit may have only one speed of control and turns on/off simultaneously with the compressor.

split air conditioner
split air conditioner

The indoor unit houses the evaporator coil or the cooling coil, a long blower and the filer. After passing from the expansion coil, the chilled Freon fluid enters the cooling coil. The blower sucks the hot, humid and filtered air from the room and it blows over the cooling coil. As the air passes over cooling coiling its temperature reduces drastically and also loses the excess moisture comfortable conditions of around 25 ° to 27 ° C as per the standard requirements. It can be mounted on the ceiling, wall or simply as a console unit on the floor.

It consists of the following parts :
a) Evaporator coil is where the heat exchange is done with the room. It consists of fins and tubes.

b) Control Panel is where user control the functions of the air conditioner. Displays at the panel may indicate the mode of operation, timer, on/off status, fan speed and other special functions. Most newer units have remote control feature built into the system

c) Air Filter is located in front of the evaporator coil to trap any dust or particles before going into the evaporator. This is usually washable and re-useable. Users are advised to clean it at least once in three months or more regularly if the environment is dirty.

d) Supply and Return Air Grills are where the air enters and discharge from the indoor unit.

e) Fan blower together with its motor are used to control the fan speed of the unit. High, medium. Low and Ultra low speeds are usually designed for users to select.

f) Capillary tube is used as an expansion device where the flow of the refrigerant depends on the tube internal diameter, shape and its length. The tube is usually used in smaller units. Larger units use thermostatic expansion valve which has a controlling valve to regulate the flow of refrigerant with greater precision.


  • A copper connection pipe and electrical wiring connects the indoor unit to the outdoor unit of the split air conditioning.
  • Gas refrigerant is pumped from the outdoor condenser coil and compressor through the connection pipe to the indoor unit(s).
  • A fan then quietly distributes cool air drawn across the unit’s evaporator coil.

Sachin Thorat

Sachin is a B-TECH graduate in Mechanical Engineering from a reputed Engineering college. Currently, he is working in the sheet metal industry as a designer. Additionally, he has interested in Product Design, Animation, and Project design. He also likes to write articles related to the mechanical engineering field and tries to motivate other mechanical engineering students by his innovative project ideas, design, models and videos.

4 thoughts on “Split type air conditioner | Diagram , Working , Parts

  1. Bhai kuch samajh nahi aaya… Working ke liye aaya tha tune sirf 2-3 points hi likhi hain jismain ghanta working samajh aayi hain

  2. Pls advise one split a/c compressor is not running amd what we did
    capacitor checked – ok
    compressor continuty checked – ok
    power supply feeding upto compressor – ok
    contactor checked – ok
    but the compressor is not working why ?

  3. will the outside blower of a split type aircon suck outside pollutants and will go through the tube then to the room where it is being installed?

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