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Solar Powered Water Pumping System Report pdf Download
The performance of a solar water pumping system is discussed in this paper ;the system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a permanent magnet (PM) DC motor and a helical rotor pump. The operation of the PV array is analysed using PSPICE. The efficiency of the system is improved with a maximum power point tracker (MPPT) and a sun-tracker. Simulation and field test results are presented.
USE OF SOLAR ENERGY:
Solar energy can be utilized in two ways:
Solar Thermal (ST) technologies where the heat produced are used to operate devices for heating, cooling, drying, water purification and power generation. The devices suitable for use by village communities include solar hot water heaters, solar cookers and solar driers.
Solar Photovoltaic (SPV) systems which convert sunlight into electricity for use applications such as lighting, pumping, communication and refrigeration.
The Solar Energy Programme is prominent among the technology-based renewable energy programmes of the MNES. Areas covered under this programme include solar thermal technology (hot water systems, cookers, dryers, solar passive architecture etc.), solar photovoltaic technology (lanterns, fixed systems, pumpsets) as well as information dissemination, marketing, standardisation of products and R&D. The support to the programme is mainly in the form of subsidies and technical support.
SOLAR ENERGY FOR AGRICULTURE
The demand for electrical energy is far outstripping supply, especially in the agricultural sector, and it is becoming increasingly difficult to meet this exponential growth in demand Agricultural productivity is closely associated to direct and indirect energy inputs and policies are required to consolidate this relationship to the benefit of farmers. If rural development is to be achieved, energy inputs must be made available, and this might require special efforts from the country as a whole, to develop and utilize renewable energy sources most important being the solar energy, to their potential which remains far from being tapped to the potential. Rural electrification has eluded the most far flung rural areas of the countries.
The solar cell operates on the principle of the photovoltaic effect – the creation of charge carrier with in a material by the absorption of energy from the incident solar radiation. The efficiency of solar cells in converting incident solar energy into electrical energy depends on the illumination spectrum intensity, materials of construction and design of the cell, atmospheric temperature and dustiness of the sky. Solar cell used in running DC electric motors have efficiencies ranging from 10 to 12 percent.
Silicon is the most commonly used material for making solar cells. Other materials include cadmium sulfide and gallium arsenate. The fabrication of the solar cell involves a large number of processes. Wafer form, followed by junction formation, contact fabrication and anti-reflection coating on the active surface of the cell. The outer surface of the panel is protected by a special tempered glass which provides high transmittance of sunlight.
The solar pump unit consists essentially of a solar array, a direct current electric motor and a pumping unit. The other components are the electrical control and some mechanism for tracking the array against the sun. Many types of pumping sets are used with photovoltaic systems, a vertical centrifugal pump coupled to a submersible DC electric motor or an ordinary volute centrifugal pump close-coupled to a horizontal DC electric motor.
However, the submersible pump unit is more suitable for the photovoltaic system. The arrangement eliminates the suction pipe and foot valve and results in a higher efficiency of the pumping unit. The submersible pump is made leakproof by a silicon carbide mechanical seal. In case of volute pump, care is taken to limit the pump suction within about 5m to maintain a high level of pump efficiency. The output of the solar array varies with the intensity of the incoming radiation and other factors. Hence, it is necessary to match a variable-speed DC motor with the panel output. At least one make of photovoltaic powered pumping sets utilizes a maximum power-control unit as an integral part of the system, in order to match the load on the pump to the varying power output of the panel.
ADVANTAGES OF SPV PUMPING SYSTEM
The life cycle and the cost to ultimate beneficairy make the SPV systems cost effective as compared to conventional systems. IN addition the farmer is saved from the capital investment he has to make for drawing lines from the grid to his field/farms.The govt. may save huge resources which otherwise may be uneconomical to network every agriculture field under the state electricity grid.
The SPV is more reliable, consistent and predictable power option as compared to conventional power system in rural areas.
Sunlight, the fuel source of SPV system is a widely available, inexhaustible, and reliable and free energy source.Hence the SPV system has no monthly fuel bills.
The system operates on little servicing and no refueling, making them popular for remote rural areas, hence the operation and maintenance is very low. The suppliers provide maintenance at a very low annual maintenance contract rates.
Local generation of power:
The SPV system make use of local resourcesunlight. This provides greater energy security and control of access to energy.
As SPV systems are modular in nature they can easily be transported in pieces/components and are easily expandable to enhance the capacity
Energy Conservation :
Solar energy is clearly one of the most effective energy conservation programs and provides a means for decentrailized PV generated power in rural areas.Solar pump is energy efficient and a decentralized system avoids any unnecessary expenditure on T & D networks
Water conservation :
The SPV sets are highly economical when combined with water conservation techniques such as drip irrigation & night time distribution of (day time pumped & stored) water. The SPV system leads to optimum exploitation of scarce ground water.
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