Liquefied Petroleum Gas | LPG as a fuel For IC Engines
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas)
-LPG is available in the market in two forms- one is propane and the other is butane. Propane is popular alternative fuel because of its infrastructure of pipe lines, processing facilities and storage for its efficient distribution and also it produces fewer emissions. Propane is produced as a byproduct of natural gas processing and crude oil refining
-Natural gas contains LPG, water vapor and other impurities and about 55% of the LPG is compressed from natural gas purification. LPG is a simple mixture of hydrocarbon mainly propane/propylene (C3S) and butane/ butylenes (C4S)
–Propane is an odorless, nonpoisonous gas which has lowest flammability range.
Utilization of LPG
LPG is used as a fuel in heating appliances and vehicles. It is increasingly used as an aerosol propellant and a refrigerant, replacing chlorofluorocarbons in an effort to reduce damage to the ozone layer
-In Europe, LPG is used as an alternative to electricity and heating oil (kerosene).It can also be used as power source for combined heat and power technologies (CHP). CHP is the process of generating both electrical power and useful heat from a single fuel source. This technology has allowed LPG to be used not just as fuel for heating and cooking, but also for de-centralized generation of electricity
-LPG has higher potential as an alternate fuel for IC engine.
Advantages of LPG
-Emission is much reduced by the use of LPG.
-LPG mixes with air at all temperatures.
-Uniform mixture can be supplied to all cylinders of multi-cylinder engine.
-Engine with high compression ratio (10:1) can use propane.
-There is cost saving of about 50% and longer life with LPG running engine.
Disadvantages of LPG
(i) A good cooling system is necessary because LPG vaporizer uses engine coolant to provide the heat to convert the liquid LPG to gas.
(ii) The weight of vehicle is increased due to the use of heavy pressure cylinder for storing LPG.
(iii) A special fuel feed system is required for LPG.
(iv) Requirement of safety device to prevent accident due to explosion of gas cylinders or leakage in the gas pipes.
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