What are the Properties Of Fluid | Learnmech


1. Viscosity:

It is a measure of the fluid’s internal resistance offered to flow. Viscosity is the most important factor from the stand point of flow. If the viscosity of the hydraulic oil is higher than recommended, the system will be affected in the following manner.

1. The viscous oil may not be able to pass through the pipes.

2. The working temperature will increases because there will be internal friction.

3. The consumption of power will increase

If the viscosity of the oil is lesser than recommended then,

1. The internal and external leakage will increase

2. It cannot lubricate properly and will lead to rapid wear of the moving parts.

oil properties
oil properties

2. Viscosity Index:

This value shows how temperature affects the viscosity of oil. The viscosity of the oil decreases with increase in temperature and vice versa. The rate of change of viscosity with temperature is indicated on an arbitrary scale called viscosity index (VI). The lower the viscosity index, the greater the variation in viscosity with changes in temperature and vice versa.

3. Oxidation Stability:

The most important property of an hydraulic oil is its oxidation stability. Oxidation is caused by a chemical reaction between the oxygen of the dissolved air and the oil. The oxidation of the oil creates impurities like sludge, insoluble gum and soluble acidic products. The soluble acidic products cause corrosion and insoluble products make the operation sluggish.

4. Demulsibility:

The ability of a hydraulic fluid to separate rapidly from moisture and successfully resist emulsification is known as Demulsibility. If oil emulsifies with water the emulsion will promote the destruction of lubricating value and sealant properties. Highly refined oils are basically water resistance by nature.

5. Lubricity:

Wear results in increase clearance which leads to all sorts of operational difficulties including fall of efficiency. At the time of selecting a hydraulic oil care must be taken to select one which will be able to lubricate the moving parts efficiently.

6. Rust Prevention:

The moisture entering into the hydraulic system with air causes the parts made ferrous materials to rust. This rust if passed through the precision made pumps and valves may scratch the nicely polished surfaces. So additives named inhibitors are added to the oil to keep the moisture away from the surface.

7. Pour Point:

The temperature at which oil will clot is referred to as the pour point i.e. the lowest temperature at which the oil is able to flow easily. It is of great importance in cold countries where the system is exposed to very low temperature.

8. Flash Point and Fire Point:

Flash point is the temperature at which a liquid gives off vapour in sufficient quantity to ignite momentarily or flash when a flame is applied. The minimum temperature at which the hydraulic fluid will catch fire and continue burning is called fire point.

9. Neutralization Number:

The neutralization number is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a hydraulic fluid. This is referred to as the PH value of the fluid. High acidity causes the oxidation rate in an oil to increase rapidly.

10. Density:

It is that quantity of matter contained in unit volume of the substance.

11. Compressibility:

All fluids are compressible to some extent. Compressibility of a liquid causes the liquid to act much like a stiff spring. The coefficient of compressibility is the fractional change in a unit volume of liquid per unit change of pressure

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