Types Of CNC Machines | Classification of CNC Machines
What is CNC Machines :
“CNC is a self-contained NC system for a single machine tool which uses a dedicated minicomputer, controlled by the instruction stored in its memory, to perform all the basic numerical control functions. ”
As per EIA“The numerical control system where a dedicated stored program computer is used to perform some or all basic functions in accordance with control programs stored in Random Access Memory of the computer”
Types of CNC machines:
1. CNC Mills:
These machining centers use computer controls to cut different materials. They are able to translate programs consisting of specific number and letters to move the spindle to various locations and depths. Used to make 3D prototypes, moulds, cutting dies, printing plates and sights.
2. CNC Lathes:
They cut metal that is often turning at fast speeds. CNC lathes are able to make fast, precision cuts using indexable tools and drills with complicated programs. Normally, they cannot be cut on manual lathes. They often include 12 tool holders and coolant pumps to cut down on tool wear.
3. Turning Centre:
Turning Centers are capable of executing many different types of lathe cutting operations simultaneously on a rotating part.
4. CNC Grinder:
Grinding metal process uses a coated wheel that slowly removes metal to create a part. Through the years, grinding was done on a manual machine, but with the advent of CNC technology, the grinding process has advanced
5. CNC Drilling:
Drilling is commonly used for mass production. The drilling machine (drilling press) is used to create or enlarge holes. Drilling machine for different jobs; the
bench drill: For drilling holes through raw materials such as wood, plastic and metal The
pillar drill: A larger version that stands upright on the floor. As the bench drill, it can be used to drill larger pieces of materials and produce bigger holes.
6. CNC Boring:
Process of enlarging an existing hole or internal cylindrical surface. This can be accomplished on a lathe or a machine tool specifically designed for the process, such as a horizontal boring machine.
7. Electrical Discharge Machines (EDM):
Wire EDM machines utilize a very thin wire (.0008 to .012in.) as an electrode. The wire is stretched between diamond guides and carbide that conduct current to the wire and cuts the part like a band saw. Material is removed by the erosion caused by a spark that moves horizontally with the wire.
8. Laser Cutting Machines:
The machine utilizes an intense beam of focused laser light to cut the part. Material under the beam experiences a rapid rise in temperature and is vaporized. Laser cuts with a minimum of distortion, no mechanical cutting forces.
The advantages of CNC over NC machines are:
- More flexibility
- Reduce data reading error
- Online editing of program
- Conversion of units
- Integration with DNC systems
- The disadvantages of CNC over NC machines are:
- High initial cost
- Higher maintenance cost
- Skilled CNC personal
- Not suitable for long run applications
- Machine have to be installed in air-conditioned places
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