Hydraulic Vs Pneumatic – Difference Between Pneumatic and Hydraulic Fluid System
Introduction To Hydraulic and Pneumatic :
What is Hydraulic and Pneumatic system ?
Fluid power is the technology that deals with the generation, control and transmission of forces and movement of mechanical element or system with the use of pressurized fluids in a confined system. Both liquids and gases are considered fluids. Fluid power system includes a hydraulic system (hydra meaning water in Greek) and a pneumatic system (pneuma meaning air in Greek). Oil hydraulic employs pressurized liquid petroleum oils and synthetic oils, and pneumatic employs compressed air that is released to the atmosphere after performing the work.
Perhaps it would be in order that we clarify our thinking on one point. By the term “fluid” we refer to air or oil, for it has been shown that water has certain drawbacks in the transmission of hydraulic power in machine operation and control. Commercially, pure water contains various chemicals (some deliberately included) and also foreign matter, and unless special precautions are taken when it is used, it is nearly impossible to maintain valves and working surfaces in satisfactory condition. In the cases where the hydraulic system is closed (i.e., the one with a self-contained unit that serves one machine or one small group of machines), oil is commonly used, thus providing, in addition to power transmission, benefits of lubrication not afforded by water as well as increased life and efficiency of packings and valves. It should be mentioned that in some special cases, soluble oil diluted with water is used for safety reasons. The application of fluid power is limited only by the ingenuity of the designer, production engineer or plant engineer. If the application pertains to lifting, pushing, pulling, clamping, tilting, forcing, pressing or any other straight line (and many rotary) motions, it is possible that fluid power will meet the requirement.
Comparison between Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Usually hydraulic and pneumatic systems and equipment do not compete. They are so dissimilar that there are few problems in selecting any of them that cannot be readily resolved. Certainly, availability is one of the important factors of selection but this may be outweighed by other factors. In numerous instances, for example, air is preferred to meet certain unalterable conditions, that is, in“hot spots” where there is an open furnace or other potential ignition hazard or in operations where motion is required at extremely high speeds. It is often found more efficient to use a combined circuit in which oil is used in one part and air in another on the same machine or process. Table shows a brief comparison of hydraulic and pneumatic systems.
Hydraulic Vs Pneumatic -Comparison between Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
|Hydraulic System||Pneumatic System|
|It employs a pressurized liquid|
as a fluid
|It employs a compressed gas, usually|
air, as a fluid
|An oil hydraulic system operates at|
pressures up to 700 bar
|A pneumatic system usually operates|
at 5–10 bar
|Generally designed as closed system||Usually designed as open system|
|The system slows down when leakage|
|Leakage does not affect the system|
|Valve operations are difficult||Valve operations are easy|
|Heavier in weight||Lighter in weight|
|Pumps are used to provide|
|Compressors are used to provide|
|The system is unsafe to fire hazards||The system is free from fire hazards|
|Automatic lubrication is provided||Special arrangements for lubrication|
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Introduction to Hydraulic Circuit (System) and Application/Advantages
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Introduction To Pneumatic System And Components Used in Pneumatic system
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