Wood Engraving Using 3 Axis CNC Machine – Mechanical Project


This machine can be used for Cutting, Engraving and Marking on wood, acrylic and PCB objects. Design picture that have been made on the PC sent to the microcontroller using serial communication then CNC perform execution on object according to point coordinates. Drill spindles will create patterns on objects automatically according to the design drawings. After testing, the CNC machine can be used for cutting, engraving and marking on wood, acrylic and PCB to 2D or 3D objects with 98.5% of carving accuracy and 100% of depth accuracy.Though there are several models for plotter, this plotter is designed in economical way. Main advantage of this plotter is we can replace the tool based on any application such as engraving machine, laser cutting machine, painting any surface and drawing purposes.Increase in the rapid growth of Technology significantly increased the usage and utilization of CNC systems in industries but at considerable expensive.The idea on fabrication of low cost CNC Router came forward to reduce the cost and complexity in CNC systems.Inspiring from this CNC technology and revolutionary change in the world of digital electronics & Microcontroller, we are presenting here an idea of “ 3 Axis CNC Machine For Wood Engraving Based On CNC Controller.”

Working with automatic electrical and mechanical equipment demands precise, accuracy, speed, consistency and flexibility. In this case it takes the help of embedded computer applications to do the job. The electrical and mechanical equipment combined with microcomputer that has been widely used is a CNC machine (Computer Numerically Controlled). CNC machines are used for mechanical work such as cutting, engraving, drilling and others. The computer technology used to control, parse and execute . certain objects based on user command. In the manufacturing industry, the use of CNC machines greatly affects the increased production . In Indonesia, CNC machines have not been developed so that they are imported directly from other country. This has an impact on the industry that is difficult to develop because the price of CNC machines still expensive. The challenge is how to make CNC machines with good perormance but low cost so that it can contribute to the acceleration of domestic manufacture industry. CNC machines are popular and widely used in the industry is a CNC that can form objects on acrylic, glass, wood and plate, mostly using laser, knife, or drill as cutting media. Research on the manufacture of CNC machines and fundamentals of embedded algorithms with the aim of producing high performance CNC machines with low cost has been widely practiced. Therefore in this paper is discussed a design of cheap 3-axis router CNC machine based on microcomputer as its main control. In this CNC machine mounted spindle drill that can move automatically by stepper motor. This CNC router machine can be used as a tool to form 3-dimensional objects such as cutting, engraving, marking on wooden, acrylic and PCB objects. This paper also discussed in detail the results of testing the CNC performance parameters.

Wood Engraving Using 3 Axis CNC Machine
Wood Engraving Using 3 Axis CNC Machine


The idea behind fabrication of low cost CNC router is to full fill the demand of CNC routers from small scale to large scale industries with optimized low cost. A major new development in computer technology is the availability of low-cost open source hardware, such as the Arduino microcontroller. An advantage of open source hardware is that a wide variety of ready-to-use software is available for them on the web, therefore the prototyping and development times are drastically reduced. Moreover, a wide range of low-cost interfaces, sensors, and accessories such as Arduino shields are also available. However, for the development of low-cost educational models of CNC machines, such tools may be quite adequate from the viewpoint of machine control. In this paper, the development of a prototype 3-axis CNC Router using Arduino-based control system is presented with following specifications: • Low cost • Easily operable • Easy interface • Flexible • Low power consumption.

Software and Coding System:

The tool chain of CNC-based manufacturing is represented in the fig11. The part to be machined is designed in a computer-aided design (CAD) software, whose output is a drawing in one of many acceptable formats most preferable format is .stl format. This drawing is then fed to the computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) software, whose output is the machine readable code used for numerical control of the machine. Since implementation of the G code is machine dependent, it is necessary to test out different choices for an open source G code interpreter for the Arduino, so that the correct motions are obtained for the machine axes through the stepper motor driver. We have used grbl, an open source G-code interpreter or milling controller for the Arduino development board.

CAM Software:

Computer Aided Manufacturing, or CAM, tools handle the intermediate step of translating CAD files into a machine-friendly format used by the Microcontroller board. CAM software needs an .STL file format from CAD software to generate machine friendly GCODE. Some example packages are like CAD/CAM, G-Simple, FreeMill, Dolphin CAD/CAM, CamBam, Vizion (ArtCam), OneCNC, VirtualGibbs, MasterCAM , BOBCAD-CAM, MeshCAM, VisualMill, TurboCADCAM, DeskCNC, SheetCAM, OneCNC, SprutCam, EdgeCAM, ArtCAM etc.

CNC Control Software (GCODE Sender):

G code Sender is used to send the G-code files to an integrated hardware interpreter(Atmega 328).Gcode Sender will take a G-code program in file and send it line-by-line to the Atmega-328 microcontroller. The Gcodes will send over the serial ports through USB communication between the computer and microcontroller.Grbl Controller is software that is designed to send GCode to CNC machines is , such as 3D milling machines. It isn‟t super smart, it just needs to give the user a nice way to get commands down to whatever controller they are using.

Reference and Download Report :


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