Reverse Osmosis Water Purification by Cycling Action – Mechanical Project 

Abstract:

Pure water is very much essential to survive, but now a days the water is getting contaminated due to Industrialisation which leads to many water-releated diseases. Reverse Osmosis(RO) Water Purification by Cycling Action meets the needs of people without requiring any electrical energy. RO is a physical process that uses the osmosis phenomenon, that is, the osmotic pressure difference between the salt water and the pure water to remove the salts from water. Water will pass through the membrane, when the applied pressure is higher than the osmotic pressure, while salt is retained. As a result, a low salt concentration permeate stream is obtained and a concentrated brine remains at the feed side. A typical RO system consists of four major sub-system : pre-treatment system, high-pressure pump, membrane module and post treatment system. In operation by pedaling the cycle, man power is converted into mechanical energy which is further converted into hydraulic energy in RO pump.

Introduction
Pure water is very much essential to survive but nowadays the water is getting contaminated due to industrialization which leads to many water related diseases.In many developing countries, people walk many miles to reach a source of water that is not necessarily potable.Water can contain dirt, minerals, chemicals and other impurities that make it smell and taste bad. Some of these contaminants can endanger health, especially when they include microscopic organisms and bacteria that can cause serious illness. Filtering water can help purify water, removing these impurities and making it safe to drink, while often improving its taste.A study conducted by various sources compared different modern methods of water purification- distillation, ultra-violet light, reverse osmosis, solid block activated carbon, granular activated carbon, water softeners, sediment filters, boiling, bottled water, ozonation, chlorination, ion exchange etc. Among all the above methods mentioned Reverse Osmosis is best suited for issues which were originally designed for mainly two things, they are: desalination of brackish water or sea water and reducing very specific chemical contaminants. Reverse Osmosis is needed to remove Fluoride, sodium, total dissolved salts, or chemicals like arsenic, radium and nitrates. In response to such a need, Reverse Osmosis Water Purification by Cycling Action is proposed to produce clean drinking water which uses human power to get pure form of water for drinking.The term water purification refers to a process, which selectively extracts pure water from an impure solution, leaving all kinds of impurities behind, regardless of their source or their nature. This is quite different than water treatment described above. There are only three scientifically recognized methods of water purification. These are: Distillation, freeze-thawing, and reverse osmosis (RO). Of these, reverse osmosis offers the most practical and economical approach to water purification. The equipment is compact, easy to operate, and it is highly energy-efficient, in comparison with distillation and freeze-thawing equipment. RO is an effective method of reducing the concentration of total dissolved solids and many impurities found in water.

Working Principle
The entire process of the design begins by adding salt water into the tank. All the heavy sediment is immediately removed as the water passes through several layered mesh micro filters. The initial filtering step is crucial because the RO filter would quickly clog if it had to filter heavier sediments.To set the purification system in motion we need to begin peddling the pedal. Since the pump mechanism is geared to minimize the effort needed to operate it, the user feels little to no difference in having to power the pump system compared to pedal a bicycle.The water then enters the four stages of the filters in RO system. Fig. Working Model.

Reverse Osmosis Water Purification by Cycling Action - Mechanical Project 
Reverse Osmosis Water Purification by Cycling Action – Mechanical Project 

The first stage removes any very heavy sediment down to fine microns still left in the water that the first set of filters did not catch. The second stage removes any unwanted color, taste and odor. These two stages prepare the water for the most crucial step Reverse Osmosis. Without these previous two filters, the RO membrane could easily be destroyed by certain chemicals that may be in the dirty water. The more filtered the water in before passing through the RO membrane, the longer the membrane will last. The third stageis the heart of the system as it removes all particles down to 0.0001 micron in size. The fourth and final stage is a repeat of the second stage, purely to optimize water quality. From here, the water exits the system as potable water and rinse water. The purest water is used for drinking and the rinse water can be used in many ways other than drinking such as irrigation, cleaning etc. so that water can never get wasted.

Main Components

The main components used to fabricate the model are:

  • Filters
  • Chain Drive with Sprocket
  • Rotary Gear Pump

The advantages, disadvantages, applications and future scope of this project are:

Advantages
The advantages are as follows:

  • Its operation and maintenance is very simple
  • It is compact and portable.
  • It is simple in process.
  • Power saved and good exercise for human beings.

Disadvantages
The disadvantages are as follows:

  • Slow production rate.
  • Requires lots of water to produce pure water.

Conclusion
The pedal operated water filtration system is a new system that is useful in developing countries like India to have daily access to safe drinking water all by harnessing the energy of pedal power.Reverse osmosis is a relatively new, but very effective application of an established scientific process. Whether it is used to meet the needs of a typical family of four, or the needs of an industrial operation requiring thousands of gallons per day, it can be a cost effective to provide the required quantity of highly treated water. With continual advances in system and membrane design that boost efficiency and reliability, RO can be expected to play a major role in water treatment for years to come.In Reverse Osmosis Water purification by Cycling Action

  • Simple in design.
  • Portable.
  • Economical.
  • Effective way for providing potable water.
  • Less maintenance.
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