Power steering systems have contributed to reduced driver fatigue and made driving a more pleasant experience. Nearly all power steering systems at the present time use fluid pressure to assist the driver in turning the front wheels. Since driver effort required to turns the front wheels is reduced, driver fatigue is decreased. The advantages of power steering have been made available on many vehicles, and safety has been maintained in these systems.
There are several different types of power steering systems, including integral, rack and pinion, hydroboost, and linkage type. In any of these systems, the power steering pump is the heart of the system because it supplies the necessary pressure to assist steering.
The power steering pump drive belt is a simple, but very important, component in the power steering system. A power steering pump in perfect condition will not produce the required pressure for steering assist if the drive belt is slipping.
Integral power-assisted steering system
In the integral power-assisted steering system, the pump is bolted to a bracket on the engine, and the recirculating ball steering gear is mounted on the frame beside the engine. This type of steering system is used on many rear-wheel-drive cars and light-duty trucks. The pump is driven by a belt from the crankshaft and an integral reservoir is mounted on the pump. A high-pressure hose and a return hose are connected from the pump to the steering gear
Pneumatic machinery are machines and tools which use air power to do work. Heavy equipment is a common example. In this type of machine, high pressure Compressed air is transmitted throughout the machine to various Pneumatic motors and Pneumatic cylinders. The air is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes.
The popularity of Pneumatic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses, and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power. These machinery are based on the Cylinders, Compressor and Pump.
Pneumatic cylinders are pressurized by Pneumatic pressure and get their power for the Pneumatic air under pressure. They transform the air’s energy to linear work. A Pneumatic cylinders works in a Pneumatic system and is the motor side of this system. The generator side of the air Pneumatic system is the pump or Compressor that brings a fixed or regulated air flow into the system. The Pneumatic cylinder initiates the pressure of the air, which can never be larger than the pressure that is asked by the load. The cylinder consists of a cylinder barrel, in which a piston connected to a piston rod is moving. The barrel is closed by the cylinder bottom at the bottom side and by the cylinder head at the side where the piston rod comes out of the cylinder. Mounting bracket or clevises are mounted to the cylinder bottom as well as the piston rod. The piston has sliding rings and seals. The piston divides the inside of the cylinder in two chambers, the bottom chamber and the piston rod side chamber.
If the air is pumped into the piston rod side chamber and the air from the piston area flows back to the air reservoir without pressure, the pressure in the piston rod area chamber is Load/(piston area – piston rod area). In such a way the Pneumatic cylinder can push and pull.By pumping Pneumatic air to the bottom side of the Pneumatic cylinder, the piston rod starts moving out. The piston pushes the air in the other chamber back to the air reservoir. If we assume that the air pressure in the piston rod chamber is zero, the pressure in the cylinder is now Force/Piston area.
When the vehicle weight increases, the power required to steer the vehicle also increases. Most of the vehicles are have fluid power for steering.
In this project pneumatic power (compressed air) is used in place of Mechanical power.
1. Used in all light duty vehicles like cars
1. Very easy to drive vehicle than fluid power.
2. No moving parts.
3. Easy maintenance.
4. No separate drive is required to drive the compressor as the brake system has the compressed air for operation.