Nanotechnology Seminar report free Pdf Download

Introduction

Molecular nanotechnology or Nanotechnology is the name given to a specific sort of manufacturing technology to build things from the atom up, and to rearrange matter with atomic precision. In other words, we can say that nanotechnology is a three dimensional structural control of material and devices at molecular level. The nanoscale structures can be prepared, characterized, manipulated, and even visualized
with tools.

“Nanotechnology is a tool-driven field.”

Other terms, such as molecular engineering or molecular manufacturing are also often applied when describing this emerging technology. This technology does not yet exist. But, scientists have recently gained the ability to observe and manipulate atoms directly. However, this is only one small aspect of a growing array of techniques in nanoscale science and technology. The ability to make commercial products may yet
be a few decades away.

“Nanotechnology is Engineering, Not Science.”

The central thesis of nanotechnology is that almost any chemically stable structure that is not specifically disallowed by the laws of physics can in fact be built. Theoretical and computational models indicate that molecular manufacturing systems are possible — that they do not violate existing physical law. These models also give us a feel for what a molecular manufacturing system might look like. Melting pot of
science combining applications of physics, chemistry, biology, electronics and computers. Today, scientists are devising numerous tools and techniques that will be needed to transform nanotechnology from computer models into reality.

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Nanotechnology is often called the science of the small. It is concerned with manipulating particles at the atomic level, usually in order to form new compounds or make changes to existing substances. Nanotechnology is being applied to problems in electronics, biology, genetics and a wide range of business applications.

Nanobots
Nanobots

Matter is composed of small atoms that are closely bound together, making up the molecular structure, which, in turn determines the density of the concerned material. Since different factors such as molecular density, malleability, ductility and surface tension come into play, nano systems have to be designed in a cost effective manner that overrides these conditions and helps to create machines capable of withstanding the vagaries of the environment.

The trick is to manipulate atoms individually and place them exactly where needed, to produce the desired structure. It is a challenge for the scientists to understand the size, shape, strength, force, motion and other properties while designing the nano machines. The idea of nanotechnology is therefore to master over the characteristics of matter in an intelligent manner to develop highly efficient systems.

The key aspect of nanotechnology is that nanoscale materials offer different chemical and physical properties than the bulk materials, and that these properties could form the basis of new technologies. For example, scientists have learned that the electronic–and hence optical–properties of nanometer-size particles can be tuned by adjusting the particle size. According to a recent study by a group at Georgia Institute of Technology, when gold metal is reduced to nanosize rods, its fluorescence intensity is enhanced over 10 million-fold. The study found that the wavelength of the emitted light increases linearly with the rod length, while the light intensity increases with the square of the rod length.

NANOTECHNOLOGY TOOLS
What would it mean if we could inexpensively make things with every atom in the right place? For starters, we could continue the revolution in computer hardware right down to molecular gates and wires — something that today’s lithographic methods (used to make computer chips) could never hope to do. We could inexpensively make very strong and very light materials: shatterproof diamond in precisely the shapes we want, by the ton, and over fifty times lighter than steel of the same strength. We could make a Cadillac that weighed fifty kilograms, or a full-sized sofa you could pick up with one hand. We could make surgical instruments of such precision and deftness that they could operate on the cells and even molecules from which we are made — something well beyond today’s medical technology. The list goes on — almost any manufactured product could be improved, often by orders of magnitude.

ADVANTAGES OF NANOTECHNOLOGY

  1. suitability for low cost, high volume production
  2. reduced size, mass and power consumption
  3. high functionality
  4. improved reliability and robustness.

NANO PROBLEMS & LIMITATION
Of course, all great advances come with associated problems. Before we get all these advantages from nanotechnology, we have to think about how we might solve these

Nanotechnology will not solve our problems!

  • How can you get millions of molecules to arrange themselves into exact arrangements?
  • How do you test the billion molecule electronic circuit?
  • Nanoscale computing is amorphous
  • The ―price of programmability

Nanotechnology has nothing to do with nuclear technology. There is no transmuting of nuclei as the alchemists tried to do, and as is done by nuclear technologists. Nanotechnology only does what chemists do: rearrange molecules. Nonetheless, it is a technology where the principle of exponentiation can be brought to bear: nuclear explosions come from an exponential proliferation of neutrons in a critical mass of fissile material. Here, we are talking not about an exponential growth of destroying things and releasing energy, but we are talking about a potential
exponential growth of constructing complex artifacts.

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