Major Parts of mechanical press and its Function

Mechanical presses belong to a class of machine tools that encompass a wide range of different machine types. Primarily, the mechanical press transforms the rotational force of a motor into a translational force vector that performs the pressing action. Therefore, the energy in a mechanical press comes from the motor. These types of presses are generally faster than hydraulic or screw presses, (actually the screw press may also be classified as a mechanical press). Unlike some presses, in a mechanical press, the application of force varies in both speed and magnitude throughout the distance of the stroke. When performing a manufacturing operation using a mechanical press, the correct range of the stroke is essential.

Mechanical Press Basic Parts Diagram  : 

parts of mechanical parts
parts of mechanical parts

Presses are chosen based on the characteristics of the manufacturing process. Mechanical press machine tools are commonly used in metal forging manufacture, and sheet metal working. The desired application of force will dictate the type of machine required. Extrusion will often necessitate a more consistent force over a longer distance. However, a mechanical press may often be a good choice for impact extrusion, since a fast, quickly repeatable application of force over a limited distance is what is needed for that type of manufacturing process. The most powerful mechanical presses in modern manufacturing industry will have a press capacity of about 12,000 tons, (24,000,000 lbs).

Mechanical Press Parts : 

Base:

The base is the supporting member of the press and provides arrangement for tilting and clamping the frame in an inclined press.

Frame:

All presses except the straight side type have “C” shaped frame to take up the vertical thrust of the ram.

Bolster plate:

The bolster plate is a flat plate fitted on the base for supporting the die block and other accessories of the press.

Ram:

The ram is the reciprocating member of the press that slides within the press and guides and supports the punch at its bottom end.

Pitman:

The pitman is the connecting rod in a crank or eccentric driven press. The position of stroke of the ram can be changed by altering the length of the connecting rod.

Crank, eccentric or other driving mechanism:

The rotary movement of the motor is converted into the reciprocating movement of the ram by crank and connecting rod, eccentric and connecting rod, or many other mechanisms.

Fly wheel:

The fly wheel is mounted at the end of the driving shaft and is connected to it through a clutch. The energy is stored up in the flywheel during idle periods and it is expended to maintain the constant speed of the ram when the punch is pressed into the work. The fly wheel is directly coupled with the electric motor.

Clutch:

The clutch is used for connecting and disconnecting the driving shaft with the fly wheel when it is necessary to start or stop the movement of the ram

Brakes:

The brakes are used to stop the movement of the driving shaft immediately after it is disconnected from the fly wheel

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