Lubrication system used for IC engines

Lubrication system : various lubrication system used for IC engines are,

(a) Mist lubrication system
(b) Wet sump lubrication system
(c) Dry sump lubrication system

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(a) Mist lubrication system:

-Used where crankcase lubrication is not suitable
– Generally adopted in two stroke petrol engine line scooter and motor cycle. It is the simplest form of lubricating system.
– It is the simplest form of lubricating system. It does not consist of any separate part like oil pump for the purpose of lubrication.
– In this system the lubricating oil is mixed into the fuel (petrol) while filling in the petrol tank of the vehicle in a specified ratio (ratio of fuel and lubricating oil is from 12:1 to 50:10 as per manufacturers specifications or recommendations.
– When the fuel goes into the crank chamber during the engine operation, the oil particles go deep into the bearing surfaces due to gravity and lubricate then. The piston rings, cylinder walls, piston pin etc. are lubricated in the same way.
-If the engine is allowed to remain unused for a considerable time, the lubricating oil separates oil from petrol & leads to clogging (blocking) of passages in the carburettor, results in the engine starting trouble. This is the main disadvantage of this system.
-It causes heavy exhaust smoke due to burning of lubricating oil partially or fully
-Increase deposits on piston crown and exhaust ports which affect engine efficiency
-Corrosion of bearing surfaces due to acids formation
-thorough mixing can fetch effective lubrication
-Engine suffers insufficient lubrication during closed throttle i.e. vehicle moving down the hill.

(b) Wet sump lubrication system:

Bottom of the crankcase contains oil pan or sump from which the lubricating oil is pumped to various engine components by a pump. After lubrication, oil flows back to the sump by gravity. Three types of wet sump lubrication system,

(i) Splash system
(ii) Splash and pressure system
(iii) Pressure feed system

(i) Splash system:
-In this system of lubrication the lubricating oil is stored in an oil sump. A scoop or dipper is made in the lower part of the connecting rod. When the engine runs, the dipper dips in the oil once in every revolution of the crank shaft, the oil is splashed on the cylinder wall. Due to this action engine walls, piston ring, crank shaft bearings are lubricated.
-It is used for light duty engine

splash lubrication system
splash lubrication system

(ii) Splash and pressure system:
Lubricating oil is supplied under pressure to main, camshaft bearings and pipes which direct a stream of oil against the dippers on the big end of connecting rod bearing cup and thus crankpin bearings are lubricated by the splash or spray of oil thrown up by the dipper.

splash and pressure lubricating system
splash and pressure lubricating system

(iii) Pressure feed system:
In this system of lubrication, the engine parts are lubricated under pressure feed. The lubricating oil is stored in a separate tank (in case of dry sump system) or in the sump (in case of wet sump system), from where an oil pump (gear pump) delivers the oil to the main oil gallery at a pressure of 2-4 kg/cm2 through an oil filter. The oil from the main gallery goes to main bearing, from where some of it falls back to the sump after lubricating the main bearing and some is splashed to lubricate the cylinder walls and remaining goes through a hole to the crank pin. From the crank pin the lubricating oil goes to the piston pin through a hole in the connecting rod, where it lubricates the piston rings. For lubricating cam shaft and gears the oil is led through a separate oil line from the oil gallery. The oil pressure gauge used in the system indicates the oil pressure in the system. Oil filter & strainer in the system clear off the oil from dust, metal particles and other harmful particles.

pressure lubrication system
pressure lubrication system
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