how does a central air conditioning system work

What is a central ac unit?

Central air conditioner unit is an energy moving or converted machines that are designed to cool or heat the entire house. It does not create heat or cool. It just removes heat from one area, where it is undesirable, to an area where it is less significant.

Central air conditions has a centralize duct system. The duct system (air distribution system) has an air handler, air supply system, air return duct and the grilles and register that circulates warm air from a furnace or cooled air from central air conditioning units to our room. It returns that air back to the system and starts again.

It uses Ac refrigerant (we may know it as Freon) as a substance to absorb the heat from indoor evaporator coils and rejects that heat to outdoor condenser coils or vice verse.

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Central Air Conditioning Components :  

Central air conditioning systems are typically combined with the furnace system, if your home has one (or use a dedicated air handler if it doesn’t), and both use the same electrical system and duct-work.

A central AC’s main components are:

  • Fans that pull air through the system
  • Evaporator coils that change refrigerant from liquid to gas
  • A compressor that pressurizes refrigerant gas
  • Condenser coils that turn refrigerant gas into a liquid
  • Refrigerant lines that carry refrigerant between the coils
  • An expansion device that regulates refrigerant flowing to the evaporator

Central Air Conditioning working Diagram :

central air conditioning Working Diagram
central air conditioning Working Diagram

How Does an Air Conditioner Work?

  • When a liquid turns into a gas or “evaporates” it absorbs heat. This is why pouring water over your skin makes you feel cooler in hot weather. Air conditioners use a chemical compound known as refrigerant that turns from liquid to gas at low temperatures. Refrigerant moves through the air conditioning system, absorbing heat from your house and transferring it outdoors in a continuous cycle.
  • Cold refrigerant is pumped through the evaporator coil. A fan blows air over the coil, and the refrigerant in the coil absorbs heat from the air. The now-cool air is blown into your ducts to be distributed through your home. As the refrigerant absorbs heat, it evaporates into a low-pressure gas.
  • Hot, low-pressure refrigerant gas moves to the compressor, which increases the pressure and temperature of the gas.
  • Hot, high-pressure refrigerant gas moves to the condenser. The gas releases heat and, as it does so, it condenses back into a liquid.
  • The liquid refrigerant flows to the expansion valve, which regulates how much refrigerant gets through to the evaporator. From here, the refrigerant flows to the evaporator to start the cooling cycle over again.

Types Of Central Air Conditioning :

Central air conditioning systems come in two basic designs: split and packaged.

  • Split systems are the most commonly used type, and are split between an outdoor and an indoor unit, as the name suggests.
  • In a packaged/ductless system, all the components are housed in one unit that is installed outside your home. Split and packaged systems both contain the same components and can provide the same amount of cooling, but there are some differences.

Benefits of Central Air Conditioning System

  • Indoor comfort during warm weather – Central air conditioning helps keep your home cool and reduces humidity levels.
  • Cleaner air – As your central air conditioning system draws air out of various rooms in the house through return air ducts, the air is pulled through an air filter, which removes airborne particles such as dust and lint. Sophisticated filters may remove microscopic pollutants, as well. The filtered air is then routed to air supply duct-work that carries it back to rooms.
  • Quieter operation – Because the compressor-bearing unit is located outside the home, the indoor noise level from its operation is much lower than that of a free-standing air conditioning
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