Design and Fabrication on Hydrogen engine (Water fuel) – Mechanical Project

ABSTRACT
A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. The widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed economy. Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth, and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. Integrated wind-to-hydrogen plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver cost low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy sources.

INTRODUCTION
Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile users. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that, if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs, vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions. The drawbacks of hydrogen use are low energy content per unit volume, high tank age weights, the storage, transportation and filling of gaseous or liquid hydrogen in vehicles, the large investment in infrastructure that would be required to fuel vehicles and the inefficiency of production processes. Buses, trains, PHB bicycles, canal boats, cargo bikes, golf carts, motorcycles, wheelchairs, ships, airplanes, submarines, and rockets can already run on hydrogen, in various forms. NASA uses hydrogen to launch Space Shuttles into space. There is even a working toy model car that runs on solar power, using a regenerative fuel cell to store energy in the form of hydrogen and oxygen gas. It can then convert the fuel back into water to release the solar energy. The current land speed record for a hydrogen-powered vehicle is 286.476 mph (461.038 km/h) set by Ohio State University’s Buckeye Bullet 2, which achieved a “flying-mile” speed of 280.007 mph (450.628 km/h) at the Bonneville Salt Flats in August 2008. For production-style vehicles, the current record for a hydrogen-powered vehicle is 333.38 km/h (207.2 mph) set by a prototype Ford Fusion Hydrogen 999 Fuel Cell Race Car at Bonneville Salt Flats in Wend over, Utah in August 2007. It was accompanied by a large compressed oxygen tank to increase power. Honda has also created a concept called the FC Sport, which may be able to beat that record if put into production.

Hydrogen fuel

Hydrogen fuel In a flame of pure hydrogen gas, burning in air, the hydrogen (H2) reacts with oxygen (O2) to form water (H2O) and heat. It does not produce other chemical by-products, except for a small amount of nitrogen oxides. Hence a key feature of hydrogen as a fuel is that it is relatively non-polluting (since water is not a pollutant). Pure hydrogen does not occur naturally; it takes energy to manufacture it. Once manufactured it is an energy carrier (i.e. a store for energy first generated by other means). The energy is eventually delivered as heat when the hydrogen is burned. The heat in a hydrogen flame is a radiant emission from the newly formed water molecules. The water molecules are in an excited state of initial formation and then transition to a ground state, the transition unleashing thermal radiation. When burning in air, the temperature is roughly 2000°C. Hydrogen fuel can provide motive power for cars, boats and aero planes, portable fuel cell applications or stationary fuel cell applications, which can power an electric motor. The current leading technology for producing hydrogen in large quantities is steam reforming of methane gas (CH4). Other methods are discussed in the Hydrogen Production article. Primarily because hydrogen fuel can be environmentally friendly, there are advocates for its more widespread use. At present, however, there is not a sufficient technical and economic infrastructure to support widespread use. The proposed creation of such an infrastructure is referred to as the hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen vehicle

A hydrogen vehicle is an alternative fuel vehicle that uses hydrogen as its on-board fuel for motive power. The term may refer to a personal transportation vehicle, such as an automobile, or any other vehicle that uses hydrogen in a similar fashion, such as an aircraft. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. The widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy. Hydrogen fuel does not occur naturally on Earth, and thus is not an energy source, but is an energy carrier. Currently it is most frequently made from methane or other fossil fuels. However, it can be produced from a wide range of sources (such as wind, solar, or nuclear) that are intermittent, too diffuse or too cumbersome to directly propel vehicles. Integrated wind-to-hydrogen plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver cost low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with traditional energy sources. Many companies are working to develop technologies that might efficiently exploit the potential of hydrogen energy for mobile users. The attraction of using hydrogen as an energy currency is that, if hydrogen is prepared without using fossil fuel inputs, vehicle propulsion would not contribute to carbon dioxide emissions.

Engine theory and hydrogen engine design

After becoming familiar with the physical characteristics of hydrogen, the engine criteria can be focused on. The initial goal was to design and develop a working hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine without extraordinary modifications. This chapter will discuss basic engine theory with a description and specifications of the engine used in this research. Before an engine is selected, designed, and built some engine theory is important to know. Most engines used in automobiles are known as four stroke engines. The four-stroke cycle means that each cylinder requires four strokes of its piston, or two crankshaft revolutions.

Descriptions of the four strokes are as follows.

Intake Stroke – On the intake stroke the piston moves from the top to the bottom of the cylinder. The intake valve is open creating a constant pressure increase in volume. The air/fuel mixture is pulled into the combustion chamber.

Compression Stroke During the compression stroke, both intake and exhaust valves are closed and the piston is driven up the cylinder. As the piston moves upward the air/fuel mixture is compressed and the pressure in the cylinder increases. Toward the end of the stroke the sparks plug fires giving enough energy to ignite the air/fuel mixture.

Expansion Stroke, or Power Stroke – As a result of the air/fuel mixture ignited the piston is pushed downward by the flame front causing the crankshaft to rotate. An increase in volume is experienced.

Exhaust Stroke – On the piston’s way back up the cylinder, the exhaust valve is open while the intake valve is closed. The burnt gases are pushed out of the cylinder and the process is ready to begin again. Figure shows the Schematic view of Hydrogen engine (Two wheeler).

hydrogen engine
hydrogen engine

Advantages and disadvantages

  • Hydrogen cars are beneficial for the environment in a number of ways. For example, they do not emit greenhouse gases that are harmful to the welfare of the ecosystem.
  • These cars are much more fuel efficient than gasoline vehicles, and let out less pollution overall. However, there are many drawbacks to using hydrogen-powered vehicles, though scientists are working to eliminate these downsides.

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Design and Fabrication on Hydrogen engine (Water fuel)

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