DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES

Definition of Ultra Light Aircraft

1. The definition of ultra light aircraft varies from country to country the aviation regulatory body of the country decides the weight of an aircraft to be classifies as ultra light aircraft. However, the civil aviation authority of Pakistan has no such definition for ultra light aircraft. As a result we selected the empty weight of our aircraft closer to that used in India and set it to 800lb.

Objective

2. The aim of the project is to design and fabricate a full scale ultra light aircraft using in-country resources.
Methodology followed
a) Market Survey’s and Research
b) Conceptual Design
c) Aerodynamic evaluation
d) Detailed Design, CAD modeling
e) Full scale fabrication

Components of the Aircraft
1. Wing
2. Fuselage Cabin
3. Fuselage Truss
4. Horizontal Tail
5. Vertical Tail
6. Flaps
7. Control Surfaces (Ailerons, Elevators, Rudder)
8. Engine Mount
9. Wing Mount
10. Connectors/Joints
11. Landing Gear
12. Control System

Fuselage
Fuselage is responsible for the largest portion of overall drag for most of the airplanes. Thus it should be sized and shaped accordingly for minimum drag. It contributes to various drags:
• Friction drag.
• Profile drag.
• Base drag.
• Compressibility drag.
• Induced drag.
To reduce friction drags, two options are available:
• Shape the fuselage so that laminar flow is possible.
• Reduce the length and perimeter as much as possible.

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES
DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES

POWER PLANT SELECTION
Power requirement for the aircraft was first found out from the initial design which was coming out to be 60 hp. Although aviation engines which fulfilled our requirement were available but financial constraints prevented us from purchasing them. Therefore a market survey was performed to find a suitable car engine which would fulfill our needs.

Alternative engine suggestions:
Despite promises made by engine suppliers an 1800cc VW engine as required was not made available. As a result a survey was done on the internet for alternate powerplants:
• Rotax engine: A second hand dual carburetor Rotax 503 engine was available in Peshawar at a cost of Rs 2 lakh. The engine had flown for 40 hours. It provided 47 hp but at the same time its weight was 85 lbs which is almost half the estimated weight of VW engine. Propeller specifications for Rotax engines are directly available on the internet. For Rotax 503 carrying a weight in the range of 700-850 lbs the propeller specs are: 56×32 where 56 is the diameter and 32 degrees is the pitch.

Fuel system
Two types of fuel systems were considered:
• Gravity fed fuel system
• Pressure fed fuel system
Gravity-Feed Systems use only the force of gravity to push fuel to the engine fuel-control mechanism. The bottom of the fuel tank must be high enough to provide adequate pressure to the fuel-control component. This type of system is often used in high-wing light aircraft. We have preferred gravity fed system as it is simple, does not need any installation of pump and suits our aircraft configuration i.e. high-wing light aircraft. However, we need to install two valves to ensure fuel supply at all time
Thus, our fuel tank has two valves to counter for every phase of flight. Fuel from these valves merged together before entering into the engine.
Fuel System Components:
• Tanks
• Lines
• Valves
• Fuel Flow-meters
• Filters and Strainers

CONCLUSION
Full detail design of the aircraft was carried out which would ensure the integrity of the aircraft. Every possible aspect of design was taken care off from the selection of Bolt size to installation of aircraft engine. Due to shortage of time the fabrication could not be completed. However, the most important part of fabrication, aircraft structure, was fully completed. Material for aircraft covering and controls has also been acquired while the propeller has also been fabricated. The entire fabrication process was carried out using the most economical resources and it was proven that an aircraft can be fabricated in Pakistan using local resources and that too at an extremely low cost.
It is suggested that this project be continued. Inshallah by next semester this project would be fully completed and CAE would be able to claim that its students have successfully designed and flown their own aircraft.

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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF ULTRALIGHT AIRCRAFT USING INCOUNTRY RESOURCES

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