Design and Fabrication of Staircase Climbing Robot – Mechanical Project

Abstract – Staircase climbing robot are important for conducting scientific analysis of objectives. Current mobility designs are complex, using many wheels or legs. An eight wheeled rover capable of traversing rough terrain using an efficient high degree of mobility suspension system. The primary mechanical feature of the stair case climbing mechanism design is its simplicity. Which is accomplish by using only two motors for mobility. Both motors are located inside the body where thermal variations and disturbance is kept to minimum, increasing the reliability and efficiency. Eight wheels’ stair case climbing design robot is used because stability purpose.

INTRODUCTION
Robotics is the area of automation which integrates the technology in various field like mechanism, sensors and electronics control system, artificial intelligence and embedded system. The synthesis of mechanism is the very first step in any robot design depending upon its application. According to a locomotive mechanism to achieve the desired mobility, mobile robots may be split into following categories: leg-type, track-type and wheel-type mobile robot consumption is also the important matter of developing. Stair climbing robot is one of the attractive performance of robot in legged and wheeled. Developments have been made in various kind of stair climbers, considering how to make it climbing ability higher and its mechanical complexity reasonable and practical. We introduce some solutions to realize stair climbing machines that we developed. Each of them has good performance as in a category of their kind, e.g. various numbers of wheeled shapes. Then, we discuss a development of adjustable high grip mover, which we think one of the best solutions as the stair climber.

Locomotion
Locomotion is a process, which moves a rigid body. There is a mobile robot’s most important part is its locomotion system which determines the stability. The difference of robotic locomotion is distinct from traditional types in that it has to be more reliable without human interaction. While constructing a robot, designer must have decided on the terrain requirements like stability criteria, obstacle height, and surface friction. There is no only one exact solution while comparing the mobility systems.

stair climbing robot
stair climbing robot

Wheel
The wheel is the most common moving element among other possibilities including legs, flying, swimming and rolling. A wheel provides at least speed, accuracy and stability for a robot, three characteristics very important in designing and build robots. Depending on the design and requirements, oriental and ball wheels user for balancing a robot.

Wheel dimensions

  • 10cm diameter
  • 5cm width
  • Hole diameter 6 mm
  • Screw for fastening on motor shaft
  • Made from virgin plastic
  • Plastic Wheel, GE White 4 “Double Tyre (10 cm x 5 cm)

Motor
The motor is screwed to the gear box from inside. Although motor gives 60 RPM at 12V but motor runs smoothly from 4V to 12V and gives wide range of RPM, and torque. Tables below gives fairly good idea of the motor’s performance in terms of RPM and no load current as a function of voltage and stall torque, stall current as a function of voltage.

 Specifications

  • DC supply: 4 to 12V
  • RPM: 60 at 12V
  • Total length: 46 mm
  •  Motor diameter: 36 mm
  • Motor length: 25mm
  • Brush type: Precious metal
  • Gear head diameter: 37mm
  • Gear head length: 21 mm
  • Shaft diameter: 6mm
  • Shaft length: 22mm
  • Gear assembly: Spur
  • Motor weight: 100 gms

Thickness of link
Thickness of robot link is 4mmThis thickness links are more suitable for the drilling and finishing operations.

Link
Material used for link is wood. For following reason.

Density
The density of wood is also influenced by structure of wood. Latewood is made of cells which have thicker walls and smaller cavities in comparison to early wood. This results in higher density of latewood as compared with early wood and explains why the density of wood increases with increasing proportion of latewood.

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