Design and Fabrication Of Pneumatic Forging Machine-Mechanical Project
Introduction To Forging :
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. The blows are delivered with a hammer (often a power hammer) or a die. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed:
cold forging (a type of cold working),
hot forging (a type of hot working).
There are many different kinds of forging processes available, however they can be grouped into three main classes:
- Drawn out: length increases, cross-section decreases
- Upset: length decreases, cross-section increases
- Squeezed in closed compression dies: produces multidirectional flow
- Common forging processes include: roll forging, swaging, cogging, open-die forging, impression-die forging, press forging, automatic hot forging and upsetting
Power Hammers : (Pneumatic Forging Machine)
Power hammers are mechanical forging hammers that use a non-muscular power source to Operate the hammer.
Power hammers are generally categorized by their power source.
Steam hammers use steam to drive the hammer. The workpieces were sometimes so large it required an overhead crane and several men to position the piece in the hammer, and a man to operate the machine.
These hammers tended to be smaller and were operated by a single man both holding the workpiece and operating the machine.
Air-power hammers use pneumatics to drive the hammer.
Components Of Forging Machine
A typical power hammer consists of a frame, an anvil, and a reciprocating ram holding a hammer head or die. The workpiece is placed on the lower anvil or die and the head or upper die strikes the workpiece.
Pneumatic Forging Machine
Here we have fabricated the pneumatic forging machine; it’s a new innovative concept. Forging is the term for shaping metal by using localized compressive forces. Cold forging is done at room temperature or near room temperature. Hot forging is done at a high temperature, which makes metal easier to shape and less likely to fracture . Warm forging is done at intermediate temperature between room temperature and hot forging temperatures . This machine has been mainly developed for metal forming to the required shape and size. In this machine we have using the pneumatic cylinder for forging the specimen. Pneumatic is air operated device. By doing the manual process it consumes more time and large amount of man power required for forging. By using this machine we can save the time and man power requirement in the industries.
|Pneumatic Forging Machine|
Here we have fixed the pneumatic cylinder on the column of the machine which is fixed on the base table. The forging hammers are fixed at the end of the pneumatic cylinder piston rod. The pneumatic cylinder is operated through the pneumatic energy (air). The air stored in a compressor the compressed air is passed to the pneumatic cylinder with the help of the solenoid valve. The solenoid valves are operated through the control unit. The air enters on port one in the pneumatic cylinder to moves the forging hammer in downward direction. After the forging operation takes places the forging hammer will moves in upward direction. While on the hammer moves in upward direction the port one will release and the air will be forced into the port number two. The two directions are controlled by control unit. During the movement the forging hammer forged the specimen to make it to the required shape and size. After the required number of strokes completed the forging process is stopped by the help of the control unit.