Design and Fabrication Of Injection Moulding Machine-Mechanical Project

ABSTRACT Of Injection Moulding Machine:

              Look around yourself and you will see plenty of injection molded parts. The mouse and key  board that you are using browse this site were probably made through the plastic injection molding process .ever use plastic handled screwdrivers? That was made with injection molding.
Injection molding is often use in mass production and prototyping this is a relatively new way to manufacture parts. First machine were built in 1993’s .
So, What is injection molding? To put is basically, injection molding Is the process of forcing melted plastic in to a mold cavity .Once the plastic has cooled, the part can be ejected. It is useful when the parts are too complex are cost prohibitive to machine with this process many parts can made at the same time, out of the same mold.


What is injection moulding????    

                              Injection moulding is the process of forcing melted plastic into a mould cavity once the plastic has coded, the part can be ejected. it is useful when the parts to complex of cost has coded, the part can be ejected. It is useful when the parts are to complex or cost prohibitive to machine with this process, many parts can be made at the same time, out of the same mould. In general the ‘plastic’ is applied to all material capable of being moulded. Plastic are a large group of material consisting of combination of carbon, hydrogen and also organic material.

Principle Of Injection Moulding
Principle Of Injection Moulding

                The product are manufacture rapidly with does dimensional tolerance and excellent surface finish. It requires little of no finishing since their dimensional finish is highly satisfactory..the important properties of plastic material are lightness a weight of plastic weight’s, resistance to corrosion and moisture, Dielectric s strength. they are made either transparent of in colors.

Main Parts of injection moulding machine model:

In injection molding machine each part is an important role. Including all the parts some are mainly used according to their function of parts depends types of process to make it regular in operation. Here we are studying some useful functionparts .

Main parts and assembly of Injection moulding Machine
Main parts and assembly of Injection moulding Machine

                       A channel in vertical size in holds rack, pinion, bearing  cup &shaft.A base. Channel is also important which gives support to the vertical channel by welding in L-size . Base channel holds the vice which holds the various type of dies.

           This is made up of steel, which have an external  squre moves to & fro by meshing internals are  threads of boss .this fix on the base channel. The squre threaded spindle can be slide by handle.

             It is made up of steel, having a key way to fit in gear & shaft so that it can be rotate with gear on the both sides of gear two ball bearing are mounted on the right hand side of operator. There is handle which is tight with bolt arrangement to main shaft due to which rack moves up &down. This way rack gives strong to inject the plastic material.

                  Bearing support another moving machine element. It permits relative motion between the contact surface of the members, while carrying the load. It absorb thrust. The material used for bearing are babit metals Tin base babits, load base babits,bronze,
Cast iron, silver act are widely used.

           It is also known as pinion which is made up of mild steel.It is having teeth externally which meshed with the teeth’s of rack. This is fitted on with key.

           This is main part which is slide up & down due to rotary motion of gear it will convert in reciprocating motion of rack will apply force on the molten plastic material so the material will inject through nozzle into the die.

              It is elastic body, whose  function is to distort when loaded & to recover it original shape when the load is removed. It is made up of wire coiled in the form of a helix. It is intended for compressive or tensile loads.
             It is lower part of cylinder. This has external v-thread of cylinder. The molten material of plastic injected to the die from nozzle hole when rack applied force on the material. It is made up of mild steel.
Cylinder :-
                It is made up of mild steel. It is having throughout hole on one side of cylinder means on top of cylinder by threading. On the lower part of the cylinder a nozzle is fitted.
         This is an electrical heating instrumental. This coil is covered on cylinder. Supplyis given & to the coil so the inside plastic material will goes to molten stage. 
         A cup is on the top of the cylinder. This having rack lower part bore so the rack slides through this hole of cup. This cup made up mild steel.Through which spring can be compressed &material will fill up in cylinder.

There are following steps in injection molding:-

1) Clamping:-
An injection molding machine consist of claming and injection units. The clamping unit is what holds the mold under pressure during the injection and cooling. Basically it holds the two halves of the injection mould together.
2) Injection:-
                   At the beginning of which the plunger at upward position of feed hopper, and the granules of the molding compound are free to drop into the feed cylinder. The injection stroke start as the plunge moves from upward to downward forcing the accumulated granules into the heating cylinder, where they are converted into the heating cylinder. Where they are converted into the heating cylinder. Were they are converted into a fluide mass. The plunger not in cylinder but also displaces the fluide material at the nozzle and forces in into the closed mould cavity.
a) Dwelling:-
                      The dwelling phase consists of pause in the injection process. The molten plastic has been injected into mould and pressure is applied to make sure all of the mold cavities are filled.
                    Were the molded product are formed to their true shape and proper density. The pressure is maintained long enough for the product to cool and become hard, the heat of the plunger is than returned to the upward position ans new granulation are free to drop through the hoper into the feed cylinder.
4) Mould opening:-
              The clamping unit opened which separates the two valves of mould after the pressure is relative both mould members is unlocked and he moveable member is moved away from the fixed member, carrying the finished product with it.
5) Ejection:-
              An ejection rod and plate eject the finished piece from the mould. The unused spruces and runners can be recycled from use again in future moulds.
              Molding by injection process is rapidly performed. The molding m/c may be operated at six shots per minute, although slower speed prevails since product molding product by injection. This machine is primarily determined by length of time required to cool and ser the material in the mould.
1) It can manufacture plumbing plastic componanats such as coupler, socket, L- connector, T-connections.
2)also it can manufacture plastic components which is using in automobile industry.
3)For electrical &electronics components.
4)Small tins which are using cosmetics industry.
5)Stationary material & toys.
6)Plastic component  used for household purpose i.e. brief cases- The list is endless.
Advantages Of Injection Moulding:-
1. These are best suited in mass products.
2. Prove to be economical by reducing the hand operation and fatigue on workers.
3. Semiskilled workers can be employed where as in hand molding skill and artisans are required.
4. The production rate is high.quality of mold is better and hence casting with less defects are products   

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