Design and development of hydraulic jack Report Download

This Project Report Is submitted By Mr. Shivam Patel and His Team
Abstract
Car jack is a device used to lift up the cars while changing the tires
during an emergency. Car jacks are available at the market has some
disadvantages such as requiring more energy to operate, are not suitable
for women and cannot be used on the uneven surface. The purpose of
this project is to modify the design of the existing car jack in terms of its
functionality and also human factors considerations. In this project, the
scopes of research were on the designing 1.5 – 3 ton maximum lifting
capacity of car jack by using optimization concept.
 To optimize the
existing design, the hand lifter has been replaced by the use of pedal
lever as it can reduce energy usage. In the process of obtaining a suitable
design, the customer needs will be translate to the engineering
characteristic to obtain the concepts that need to be modified and
fabricated. From the house of quality, the best concept will be valued
based on the weighted rating method. The morphology chart had been
used to obtain the best concept solution. After the best concept had been
selected using the weighted rating method, next step was to determine
the part and component that can be modified by arrange the part into
chunks and clustering with the component according to the function or
system. From this step, it can be determined which component can be
reduced or modified.
 Then the configuration design was analyzed According the function factor and critical issue so that the design that
had been implementing was according to the specification and customer
requirement. The last step for this project was parametric design. In this
topic, the new design concept will be calculated to obtain the required
force and compared with the theoretical calculation in the table of
human factor. 
Problem in Existing Mechanical Jack
• Mechanical Jack requires more effort.
• It also requires human effort. 
• Not suitable for uneven surfaces.
• More power consumption. 
• Maintenance is high. 
• Suitable for small capacity. 
• Not suitable for woman. 
How Hydraulic Jack Work ?
 A jack is a mechanical device which uses a screw thread or a
hydraulic cylinder to lift heavy loads or apply great linear forces. The
most common forms of jacks available in the market are Scissor car jacks, House jacks, Hydraulic jacks, Pneumatic jacks and Strand jacks
that are extensively used in Construction, Industrial, Automobile and
Engineering segments. In most of the powerful jacks, hydraulic power is  Used to provide more lift over greater distances. Mechanical jacks
usually have lifting capacity ranging from 1.5 tons to 3 tons.
 Hydraulic
jacks are mechanical devices used to lift heavy loads, vehicles, weight
equipment or apply great forces using hydraulic fluid as the main source
of power. These are widely used in automotive, industrial and
construction industries. These are sturdy in construction, compact in
size, portable and capable of exerting great forces. It consists of two
cylinders of different sizes which are connected together by a pipe and a
hydraulic fluid or oil. 
The hydraulic fluid is incompressible and using a
pump plunger is forced into the cylinder of the jack. Oil is used because
of its stable and self lubricating nature. When the plunger pulls back, oil
is drawn out of the reservoir and it goes inside the pump chamber. When
the plunger moves forward, the oil is pushed back into the cylinder. This
oil movement builds up pressure in the cylinder. And it is this pressure
which leads to the working of the hydraulic jack. It also finds usage in
workshops and also lifts elevators in low and medium rise buildings. 
These can be segmented into two types:
  1. Bottle Hydraulic Jack 
  2. Floor
    Hydraulic Jack. 
Bottles are portable in design; in these the piston is in a
vertical position and it supports a bearing pad which touches the object
being lifted. Bottle Hydraulic are most appropriate for lifting vehicles
(cars, trucks, SUVs, trailers), houses and other heavy objects. 
In a Floor
Jacks
, the piston is in a horizontal piston and there is a long arm which
provides the vertical motion to a lifting pad. There are wheels and
castors in floor jacks. 
The working principle of all hydraulic jacks is  Common but these differ in their shapes and sizes. Hydraulic jacks with
varied sizes and specifications are used to lift different types of heavy
equipment and vehicles such as bulldozers, forklifts, elevators, trolleys
and trailers and excavators. These can also be found in household
equipments as well like door stoppers, cars, bikes etc. Hydraulic Jacks
are high in demand across the globe owing to their sturdy construction,
reliable and hassle free operation, unparalleled performance, user-friendly
design and less maintenance.

Design and development of hydraulic jack image
Design Of  Hydraulic Jack 
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND METHODOLOGY:

• Load (W) = 06 ton (60kN)
• OPERATING PRESSURE (p) = 25 M Pa
• Lift range (L) = 20 cm
• Man effort put on the handle (e) = 20 Kg
• Permissible tensile stress of mild steel (σt) = 120 N/mm2
• No. of strokes for lifting load (n) = 150
• Factor of safety = 5
• Permissible shear stress of mild steel (τ) = 20 N/mm2
• Permissible compressive stress of mild steel (σc) = 20 N/mm2
• Permissible compressive stress of cast iron (σCI) = 120 N/mm2
• Permissible shear stress of cast iron (τCI) = 35 N/mm2 
Applications of Hydraulic Jack

• Building of field erected storage tanks
• Increasing tank capacity by adding shell rings or courses
• Dismantling of old tanks
• Repair or replacement of tank bottom plate
• Repair to tank foundation
• Erection of other circular structures such as reactor shields in nuclear power stations, etc 
Advantages of Hydraulic Jack
• Hydraulic jack is fluid filled. They work quick manually or electrically.
• They do not require much work to use manually.
• Hydraulics Systems use fluids to transfer energy, fluids work better then solids as they can take different shape.
• They generally suffer from less damage due to hard parts rubbing together.
• Easier Inspection.
Disadvantages of Hydraulic Jack

• The downside is maintenance is required.
• If you use a hydraulic jack to work on a vehicle, jack stands are a MUST.
• Seal failures can cause a vehicle on a jack to drop without warning.
• This type of jack also requires more storage space and can be quite heavy.

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