Design and Analysis of Helical Blade Wind Turbine Mechanical Project

ABSTRACT:

This report describes about the wind power and its potential that can be harnessed in the future to meet the current energy demand. With detailed description of the wind turbine and the wind generator focus has been given on the interconnection of the generators with the grid and the problems associated with it. The shape of the blades is changed to helical so that it can rotate continuously at any direction of wind. Hence the efficiency of the turbine is improved and also the stresses are minimised. Conclusions were made about the behaviour of the wind in urban location. Thereafter, the helix angle of the blade is changed and the best angle of operation is analysed.

INTRODUCTION

A windmill is a mill that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy (mechanical energy) by means of vanes called sailsor blades. Centuries ago, windmills usually were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. Thus they often were gristmills, wind pumps, or both. The majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or wind pumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power. The term appears to have migrated from parallel hydroelectric technology(rotary propeller). The technical description for this type of machine is an airfoil powered generator.

Types :-

  1. Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
  2. Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DESIGN AND WORK OF THE HELICAL BLADE WIND TURBINE
Typically, helical wind turbines are designed along a vertical axis. Vertical axis wind turbines are generally gaining popularity for residences and urban settings because they can be placed lower to the ground and on rooftops. Another advantage of the helical wind turbine is that it generally can be used in areas with higher wind speeds where bladed turbines would need to be shut down for safety reasons. In recent years, manufacturers of utility scale horizontal axis bladed wind turbines have come under fire for killing birds especially in migratory paths. Helical wind turbines are also less susceptible to problems with crosswinds than bladed turbines and they require no tail-fan to keep them pointed in the optimal direction.

Design and Analysis of Helical Blade Wind
Design and Analysis of Helical Blade Wind

FEATURES

  • The turbine is self-starting.
  • They are omni directional and do not require pointing in the direction of the wind.
  • The lower blade rotational speeds imply lower noise levels.
  • Perceived as being more aesthetically pleasing.
  • The increased blade configuration solidity and torque assists the machine in self-starting.
  • Eliminating the risk of the blade reaching equilibrium during start-up rotation by using 3 blades or more.
  • Easy access to all mechanical and structural elements of the machine.
  • A direct drive, permanent magnet generator is used and there are no gear boxes with the machine having only one moving part.

PARAMETERS
1) Tip Speed Ratio
The tip speed ratio is very important. The tip speed ratio (λ) for wind turbines is the ratio between the rotational speed of the tip of a blade and the actual velocity of the wind. The tip speed ratio is directly proportional to the windmill’s productivity.High efficiency 3-blade-turbines have tip speed of 6 to 7.

2) Betz Limit
No wind turbine could convert more than 59.3% of the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical energy turning a rotor. This is known as the Betz Limit, and is the theoretical maximum coefficient of power for any wind turbine. The maximum value of According to Betz limit is 59.3%. For good turbines it is in the range of 35 – 45%.

3) Material used Wind Turbine Blades
The latest blade design is made of fibre-glass and epoxy resin. Its unique feature is its curvature like tip which allows it to catch low wind speeds. The turbine blades made of carbon fibre are light weight, and has a razor sharp edge which allows it to literally cut through the wind and makes it almost silent. The material of
the blade is glass fibre – epoxy resin. It is less expensive than carbon composite. Fibreglass composites are insulators, which mean they do not respond to an electric field and resist the flow of electric charge.

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