Automatic Pneumatic Sliding Door Using Sensors and Controllers – Mechanical Project

Abstract- Automatic Pneumatic Door Using IR Sensors, serves to automate the mechanism of door operation using Pneumatic, Arduino microcontroller and infrared sensor technology.

The methodology applied in the project is divided into three parts, firstly designing and fabrication of the door with the calculated dimensions, secondly, developing a program on the Arduino for door operation and thirdly, interfacing the different components to work together in a cohesive manner.

When an object comes in or goes out of the range of the sensor, a signal is sent to the Arduino which controls the electro-pneumatic circuit to open or close the door. The significance of this system is automation of the door which can be customized according to the industrial, commercial or domestic requirements.

Based on the results obtained a small prototype was designed and a suitable code was developed taking into account the ambient light conditions

OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project is to design and fabricate an automatic pneumatic door using IR proximity sensors. The door is to open automatically upon detecting a person standing in front of it, and after the person has passed through, should close automatically. The door opens only after the person is present for a stipulated amount of time. If, after detecting a person in front of it, the person does not cross the door and goes in some other direction, then the door should close after a preset “timeout” limit. We are using microcontroller/Arduino to provide the logic for the operation of the door. One major advantage of using the microcontroller/Arduino is that we can use the same door for different applications just by altering the programming logic without any change in the hardware. In this project we are designing a basic prototype of the automatic pneumatic sliding door which can be modified for various industrial and commercial purposes.

catia 3d model pnematic door open project
catia 3d model pnematic door open project

METHODOLOGY
The door is designed to slide on appropriate slider and works on pneumatic air pressure. It consists of two IR proximity sensors which sense the presence of obstacle in their way. Each sensor consists of an emitter and receptor unit. When the signal from the emitter is obstructed it signifies the presence of an obstacle. The signal from IR sensors is the input of the Arduino .This signal goes to the Arduino which has a specific program written for it. The pneumatic actuator works according to the set of codes in Arduino .The cylinders retract when the obstruction is detected by the IR sensors thus opening the door and expands when the obstacle has been detected by the second IR sensor located on the other side. This pneumatic operation is controlled by suitable electro-pneumatic circuit. The 2nd IR sensor is installed at the other end of the door. It senses whether the object which came in through the door has passed out of it successfully .This signal is sent to the Arduino and it has set of codes to control this operation.

MAKING OF THE SLIDING DOOR

WOODEN FRAME
The wooden frames are made up six different wood pieces which are initially cut into approximate length and planned to get a smooth and parallel surface. The four pieces are joined in such a way that it forms a rectangular shape in order to accommodate two doors. Two more pieces of wood are used as stand so that the door frame can be clamped inside it and the door doesn‟t topple. The four frames are joined together using four dovetail joints. Then glue and nails are used to clamp the joints together and increase the strength of the dovetail joints.

SLIDING DOOR AND GLASS SLIDING CHANNEL
The doors are made in such a dimension that it suits the wooden frame slot. The door is made of plywood according to the required dimension. Glass sliding channels (E- channels) are fixed in the inner side of the rectangular frame using nails so that the plywood sheets can easily slide on them.

ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
1. Arduino/ microcontroller
2. Two IR proximity sensors
3. Two 5V 5pin relay switches
4. Soldering equipment
5. Jumper wires
6. Single core connecting wires
7. 24 V dc supply
8. Banana pin
9. Bread board

CONCLUSION
The objective of this project was to design and fabricate an automatic pneumatic door using IR sensors. Pneumatic systems provide motive power in a cheaper, safer, more flexible, and more reliable way than the orthodox electric motors and actuators. We have designed a pneumatically operated automatic door using IR sensors and Arduino.
The door will open whenever the IR proximity sensor 1 (mounted on the entry side of the door) senses the object and it will close only if that object has passed through the door and the IR sensor 2 (mounted on the exit side of the door) senses it. The whole phenomenon is controlled by a set of codes which we have written in the Arduino. The Arduino basically provides the logic for the entire operation which can be modified according to the user‟s requirement.
The door was tested in the automation laboratory and the program was modified according to the ambient light conditions in the laboratory. The opening and closing of the door was smooth and the IR sensor sensed each and every object without any flaw. The prototype and the program can be modified according to the requirement and this project can be applied in industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.
As the whole world is switching towards automation , the automatic pneumatic sliding door has a huge role to play in future industries, malls and shopping centers , buses, airports, educational institutions, hospitals and also in domestic usage. It can be enhanced by adding techniques like face detection, retina detection etc. and can be used to increase the security of important places. The pneumatic part will ensure that the door is cheaper and has smooth operation compared to other automatic doors.

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